Thursday, August 27, 2015

An offered bibliography on the accents

Argument? nope - Read this book? - nope - read all these books then come back and talk to me.

Such an advisor I have. At age nearly 70, have I time?  We'll see - so I keep the list for reference.

All I can offer you - a bibliography. 

This list is not complete. You can take a lot more literature in Hebrew. 
There are two books on computer technology and teamim below the list. 
At the bottom are the work of scientists like Vantoura, - she is not the only one. 

Avenary, Hanoch. The Ashkenazi Tradition of Biblical Chant between 1500 and 1900: Documentation and Musical Analysis. Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University; the Council for Culture & Art, 1978. 87 p. 
de Balmes, Abraham ben Meir. Peculium Abrae : Grammatica Hebraea vna cum Latino. Venetijs : In aedibus Danielis Bo[m]bergi, 1523. IV, 638 p. 
Ben-Zeev, Yehuda Leib. Talmud loshn ivri. Breslau: Grassische Stadt-Buchdruckerey, 1796. 292 р. 
Berliner, Abraham. Beiträgezur hebräischen Grammatik in Talmud und Midrasch. Berlin: M. Driesner, 1879. 59 z. 
Binder, Abraham Wolf. Biblical Chant. New York: Sakred Music Press, 1959. 125 p. 
Cohen, Dalia; Herzog, Avigdor; Sharvit, Uri; Weil, Daniel. Characterization of the System of Te'amim in Practice in Light of Theoretical Findings about the Original Performance // Proceedings of the Tenth World Congress of Jewish Studies. Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1990. Div. D, vol. 2. P. 149–156. 
Cohen, Dalia; Weil, Daniel. The Original Performance of the Tiberian Masoretic Accents, a Deductive Approach: 1. The Syntactic Function // Leshoneinu, 1989. P. 1–25. 
Cohen, Dalia; Weil, Daniel. The Scale System and Scale of Tiberian Masoretic Cantillation: Were They Pentatonic? Theoretical Considerations // Orbis Musicae. Vol. 10. 1991. P. 98–117. 
Davis, Arthur. The Hebrew Accents of the Twenty-one Books of the Bible. London, D. Nutt, 1892. VIII, 70 p. 
Delitzsch, Franz. Physiologie und Musik in ihrer Bedeutung für die Grammatik, besonders die hebräische: eine akademische Rede. Leipzig : Dörffling und Franke, 1868. 47 s. 
Dotan, Aron. Prolegomenon. Research in Biblical Accentuation: Background and Trends // Wickes, William; Dotan, Aron. Two Treatises on the Accentuation of the Old Testament. New York, 1970. P. VII–XXXVII. 
Engberg, Sysse Gudrun. Greec ekphonetic neumes and Masoretic Accents // Studies in Eastern Chant. Supplementum Epigraficum Graecum. Amsterdam, 1966, No. I. P. 37–49. 
Jacobson 1992 — Jacobson, Joshua R. Ta'amey Hamikra: a Closer Look // Journal of Sinagogue Music. 1992, vol. XXII, No. 1–2. P. 76–90. 
Jacobson 2005 — Jacobson, Joshua R. Chanting the Hebrew Bible (Student Edition): The Complete Guide to the Art of Cantillation. Philadelphia: Jewish Publications Society, 2005. 300 p. 
Joosten, Jan. The Tiberian vocalization and the edition of the Hebrew Bible Text. To be published by Innocent Himbaza in a volume in the OBO series. URL:https://www.academia.edu/8502968/The_Tiberian_vocalization_and_the_edition_of_the_Hebrew_Bible_Text
Khan, Geoffrey A. A Short Introduction to the Tiberian Masoretic Bible and its Reading Tradition. Piscataway NJ: Gorgias Press, 2012. 154 p. 
Kircher, Athanasius. Musurgia universalis, sive ars magnæ consoni et dissoni: in 10 libros digesta. Tome I: libros 1–7. Romæ: Franceso Corbelletti, 1650. 71, 37, 79, 52, 204, 128, 188 s. 
Mitchell H. G. The Prose Accents // Journal of Biblical Literature. Vol. 9, № 1, 1890. P. 132–135. 
Mitchell H. G. The Poetical Accents // Journal of Biblical Literature. Vol. 10, № 2, 1891, P. 144–146. 
Portnoy, Marshall; Wolff, Josee. The Art of Torah Cantillation: A Step-By-Step Guide to Chanting. New York: URJ Press, 2000. 96 p. + CD. 
Praetorius 1901 — Praetorius, Franz. Uber Die Herkunft Der Hebraischen Accente. Berlin: Verlag von Reuther & Reichard, 1901. 53 s. 
Price, James D. The syntax of masoretic accents in the Hebrew Bible. Lewiston; New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 1990. 323 p. 
Price, James D. Concordance of the Hebrew Accents in the Hebrew Bible. 5 Vols. Lewiston; New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 1996. 
Price, James D. Exegesis and Pausal Forms with Non-Pausal Accents in the Hebrew Bible. A Paper for Presentation at the Southeastern Regional Meeting of The Evangelical Theological Society. 2006. URL:http://www.jamesdprice.com/images/Pausal_Forms_ETS_paper.pdf 
Reuchlin, Johannes. De accentibus et orthographia linguae Hebraicae: Libri tres. Haguenau, 1518. 176 s. 
Rosenbaum, Samuel. A Guide to Haftarah Chanting. New York: Ktav Publishing House Inc., 1973. 154 p. 
Rosenbaum, Samuel. A Guide to Torah Reading. New York: Ktav Publishing House Inc., 1982. 141 p. 
Rosenbaum, Samuel. A Guide to the Prayer Book for the High Holy Days. 1997. New York: Cantors Assembly, 122 p. 
Rosowsky, S. The Cantillation of the Bible: the Five Books of Moses. New York: The Reconstructionist Press, 1957. 669 p. 
Rubin, Emanuel. Rhythmic and Structural Aspects of the Masoretic Cantillation of the Pentateuch // Proceedings of the Eleventh World Congress of Jewish Studies. Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1994. Division D, Vol, 2. P. 219–226. 
Sefer Diḳduḳe ha-ṭeamim / Hrsg. von. Seligmann Baer; Hermann L Strack. Leipzig : L. Fernau, 1879. 
Seroussi, Edwin. In Search of Jewish Musical Antiquity in the 18th-century Venetian Ghetto: Reconsidering the Hebrew Melodies in Benedetto Marcello’s «Estro Poetico-Armonico» // The Jewish Quarterly Review. 2002, vol. 93, № 1–2. P. 149–200. 
Shiloah, Amnon. Jewish Musical Traditions. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1992. 274 p. 
Smith, John Arthur. Music in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity. Surrey (England); Burlington (USA): Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2011 г. 294 p. 
Spanier 1927 — Spanier, Artur. Die massoretischen Akzente : eine Darlegung ihres Systems nebst Beiträgen zum Verständnis ihrer Entwicklung. Berlin : Akad.-Verl., 1927. 142 s. 
Spiro, Pinchas. Haftara chanting. New York: The Broad of Jewish education, 1964. 218 p. (Переиздана в 1978 и 1994 гг.). 
Weil, Daniel M. Tentative Reconstruction of Masoretic Cantillation // Proceedings of the Tenth World Congress of Jewish Studies. Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1989. Div. D, vol. 2. P. 157–164. 
Weil, Daniel Meir. The Masoretic Chant of the Hebrew Bible. Jerusalem: Rubin Mass, 1996. 397 p. (English), 31 p. (Hebrew) 
Werner, Eric. A Voice Still Heard: The Sacred Songs of the Ashkenazic Jews. Press University Park and London: The Pennsylvania State University, 1976. XIII, 350 p. 
Wickes, William. Hebrew Accentuation. A Treatise on the Accentuation of the three so-colled Poetical Books of the Old Testament: Psalms, Proverbs and Job. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1881. XII, 120 p. 
Wickes, William. Hebrew Accentuation. A Treatise on the Accentuation of the Twenty one So-colled Prose Books of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1887. XVI, 156 p. 
Geniza Bible Fragments with Babylonian Massorah and Vocalization / Ed. by Israel Yeivin. 5 vol. Jerusalem: Makor Publishing, 1973. 
Yeivin, Israel. Introduction to the Tiberian Masorah / Translated by E. J. Revell. Scholars Press, 1980. 324 p. 
______________________ 
Goerwitz, Richard L., III. A New Masoretic “Spell Checker” or A Fast, Practical Method For Checking the Accentual Structure and Integrity Of Tiberian-Pointed Biblical Texts // Studies in Semitic and Afroasiatic Linguistics Presented to Gene B Gragg / Ed. Cynthia L. Miller. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. 2008. P. 111–122. (Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization. Vol. 60). 
Richter, Helmut. Hebrew Cantillation Marks And Their Encoding. URL: http://www.mechon-mamre.org/c/hr/ 
_______________________ 

Burns, Jeffrey. The Music of the Psalms, Proverbs and Job in the Hebrew Bible. Verlag Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 2011. P. XIII, 495 + CD. (Jüdische Musik, 9). 
Büchler, Adolf. Untersuchungen zur Entstehung und Entwicklung der hebräischen Accente. I. Theil: Die Ursprünge der verticalen Bestandtheile in der Accentuation des hebräischen Bibeltextes und ihre masoretische Bedeutung. Wien: Tempsky in Komm., 1891. 182 s. 
Hendel, Russell Jay. Biblical Cantillations // Proceedings of Bridges 2010: Mathermatics, Music, Art, Architecture, Cultire. 2010. P. 299–304. 
de Hoop, Raymond. The System of Masoretic Accentuation and Colometry in the Hebrew Bible. URL:https://www.academia.edu/1468512/The_System_of_the_Masoretic_Accentuation_in_the_Hebrew_Bible 
de Hoop, Raymond. The Te`amim (Masoretic Accents) and the Theory of Relativity. Paper read at the IOMS Munich. 2013. URL: https://www.academia.edu/4763669/The_Teamim_Masoretic_Accents_and_the_Theory_of_Relativity

The results of my research in the use of software to read the Hebrew Bible

I have written much on this blog of my progress in deciphering the meaning of the signs in the text of the Hebrew. Now for a simple example of uncertainty, science, and testing of the results. There is much more to do - particularly to teach scholars how to read music.

William Wickes writes in the 19th century on the accents in the Hebrew text and he has studied many manuscripts directly. You know what this would have been like in the 19th century. Travel, study, notes, and so on, a long process. The dedication and industry of such work is commendable and born I am sure of love of the subject (at least).

I won't go into detail on his naming of the accents and so on, but just move immediately to a single claim. He makes the claim (page 23) that "Logically, a verse may be closely connected with the one preceding or following it; but musically and accentually no such connection exists."

This is a testable claim. Science looks at the data and performs experiments to see if general statements such as this can stand scrutiny. Perhaps one exception would prove that such a general rule cannot stand. But there is not just one, there are examples on every page of scripture that deny that general statement. These could be proven by naming the accents that begin the verses of Proverbs 2. But you would not understand and neither would I want you to struggle through such an explanation.

As I demonstrated a few days ago (before I had even heard of Wickes' book though I had considered others such as Jacobson), the music tells us so much more simply than an arcane explanation. The music sings the complex connections between verses. No example I have looked at fails to illustrate this far in excess of what any 'punctuation' could do.

Simple conclusion. Tradition has lost the meaning of the signs. Sure, it knows they are somehow exegetical and musical, but it can no longer communicate this to the masses that would love to hear how that works. It has lost its way. If I have to read a complex treatise with 25 unpronounceable words and contorted 'simplification' about conjunctive and disjunctive hierarchical roles of unreadable diacritics, then I simply won't do it. If I have to listen to transparent and beautiful music and don't have to be told what I am hearing because it is obvious to me, then I will hear and love the result.

Vantoura is transparent. The rules are easily learned. Sight reading is easily learned. The result is beauty. What's to argue about? Tradition is struggling under a falsely engineered explanation. The scholars are not musicians and therefore will argue out of ignorance. They will ask you to read a book instead of showing you the beauty of the word.

I have 35% completed my transcription of the whole Bible. I hope to be completed by Christmas - but we'll see. But my work is scientific and therefore repeatable by any competent programmer. It need not be lost. It follows a clear set of transcription rules such that no information is lost in the resulting music. (I could even keep the qere-ketiv distinctions but for the most part though the programming supports this, I have chosen not to.)

If you want to see the work, the xml files are all at this link. To read them as music, you need a music program such as Musescore version 2 or above.

My work is dependent on the work of Suzanne Haik Vantoura, and all the software engineering that has gone into my company's own product GX-LEAF as well as the development of the MUSIC-XML language. Lots of dependencies for which I am grateful. When I began, I had no idea that this would be possible to complete. Now it is clear that it is.

Wednesday, August 26, 2015

What are these accents in the OT?

There is little sense I suppose in arguing. It was Will Durant who said that "History is mostly guesswork, and the rest prejudice". I prefer to avoid the arguments in the religious world.

But I do ask: What do all these accents in the Old Testament signify? With thanks to some negative comments on Haik-Vantoura's system in the Academia site, I now know there are a few more resources to study on the accents - e.g. this one from archive.org: A treatise on the accentuation of the three so-called poetical books on the Old Testament, Psalms, Proverbs, and Job, with an appendix containing the treatise, assigned to R. Jehuda Ben-Bil'am, on the same subject, in the original Arabic.

Well, its not in the original Arabic or I would not be reading it. And it's not too likely that I will read the whole thing very quickly in any case. But a few paragraphs maybe. It will be a counterfoil to Jacobson.

One thing is sure, if it were not for Vantoura's system, I would never (and I mean never) have studied or appreciated these signs. But the music is very revealing. And the more I reveal, the more people will see and hear that there is much to her system that reveals the mind of the poet.

The negative comments I received on my paper (copy is here) were these. The first led me directly to the above link (though his link is commercial and incomplete.)
I didn't have time to comment before the session closed. I wanted to point out an error regarding the two sets of te'amim in the Decalogue. What you missed in the paper is that the te'amim have another function, that of parsing the verse into lexical units. For more on this you should have a look at the following classic work by William Wickes: here The two sets of te'amim reflect two reading modes, one to be used in synagogue, and one for study. The reading in synagogue splits the Decalogue more obviously into 10 distinct utterances, and so necessitates a different set of te'amim of accommodate the different lexical parsing.
Now this is news to me and quite different from Vantoura's suggestion. Worth some consideration.

My response: Thank you for the interesting observation. This is certainly a possibility. I did not expect much discussion. Vantoura considered the extra accents as music in any case. I suspect she and her father, a rabbi, did not know this other possible usage. Besides modern (i.e. post 12th century) explanations of the accents, do you have some idea of the origin of these two sets of them in the Decalogue?

The second is less revealing:
I can not congratulate you. The theory of Haïk-Vantoura is based on wrong data. Vantoura knew little about function of the te'amim. She interpreted them incorrectly. Vantoura's reconstruction differ fundamentally with the synagogue practice of reading Torah and with the opinion of the leading researchers on cantillation marks.
This last sentence is a true statement. Unfortunately, the first statements are guesswork and prejudice.

My response: I understand that what you say is true. But I would hope you could give more reason than just disagreement. Vantoura's interpretation is the inference of a musician and it reveals function that is quite brilliant and beautiful. It also shows a carefully coded internally consistent system that is typical of human engineering. What is the right data and how can it be inferred and confirmed as correct?

The test case for Vantoura's methods remains for me their application to Psalm 114 where they resolve into the famous tune: tonus peregrinus. See more in The Songs of Ascents by David Mitchell (Precentor, Holy Trinity, Brussels).


I should also say that her method leads to the ability to sight-read the accents and to perform them with ordinary people. We have done so at St Barnabas on several occasions in both Hebrew and English. One would not want to do this every week, but the results strike people deeply and make the Old Testament lessons and psalms stand out in all their drama, foreignness, and beauty.

Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Psalm 39 and Job 10

There are many shared words in sequence in these two chapters, Psalm 39 and Job 10, the second half of his response to Bildad (though he has forgotten Bildad). Notice the sweep in the table from left to right in each section.
אדּבּרה I speak
JOB 10:1דּבּר
אמּר I said
JOB 10:2אמּר
תּרשׁיענּי do condemn me
JOB 10:2רשׁע
הודּיענּי let me know
JOB 10:2ידּע
מּה why
JOB 10:2מּה
הטובּ is it good
JOB 10:3טובּ
רשׁעיםּ the wicked
JOB 10:3רשׁע
הכּימּי as the days of
JOB 10:5יוםּ
ימּיךּ are your days
JOB 10:5יוםּ
כּימּי be as the days of
JOB 10:5יוםּ
לעונּי my iniquity
JOB 10:6עוןּ
ולחטאתּי and my sin
JOB 10:6חטא
דּעתּךּ your knowledge
JOB 10:7ידּע
לא no
JOB 10:7לא
ארשׁע I am wicked
JOB 10:7רשׁע
ואיןּ but there is not
JOB 10:7איןּ
מּידּךּ from your hand
JOB 10:7ידּ
מּציל delivery
JOB 10:7נּצל
ידּיךּ your hands
JOB 10:8ידּ
ויעשׂונּי and made me
JOB 10:8עשׂה
עשׂיתּנּי you made me
JOB 10:9עשׂה
וגּידּיםּ and sinews
JOB 10:11נּגּדּ
עשׂיתּ you made
JOB 10:12עשׂה
שׁמּרה watch
JOB 10:12שׁמּר
ידּעתּי I know
JOB 10:13ידּע
עמּךּ is with you
JOB 10:13עםּ
חטאתּי I have sinned
JOB 10:14חטא
ושׁמּרתּנּי you watch me
JOB 10:14שׁמּר
ומּעונּי and from my iniquity
JOB 10:14עוןּ
לא not
JOB 10:14לא
רשׁעתּי I have been wicked
JOB 10:15רשׁע
לא not
JOB 10:15לא
נּגּדּי before me
JOB 10:17נּגּדּ
עמּי are with me
JOB 10:17עםּ
לא no
JOB 10:18לא
לא not
JOB 10:19לא
ימּי my days
JOB 10:20יוםּ
וחדּל and finite
JOB 10:20חדּל
מּמּנּי from me
JOB 10:20מּןּ
ואבּליגּה and I will smile
JOB 10:20בּלגּ
בּטרםּ from ere
JOB 10:21טרםּ
אלךּ I walk
JOB 10:21הלךּ
ולא nor
JOB 10:21לא
ולא and without
JOB 10:22לא
אמּרתּי I said
PSA 39:2אמּר
אשׁמּרה I will keep
PSA 39:2שׁמּר
מּחטוא from sin
PSA 39:2חטא
אשׁמּרה I will keep
PSA 39:2שׁמּר
רשׁע a wicked thought
PSA 39:2רשׁע
לנּגּדּי is before me
PSA 39:2נּגּדּ
מּטובּ from good
PSA 39:3טובּ
דּבּרתּי I spoke
PSA 39:4דּבּר
הודּיענּי make me know
PSA 39:5ידּע
ימּי my days
PSA 39:5יוםּ
מּה such as
PSA 39:5מּה
אדּעה let me know
PSA 39:5ידּע
מּה how
PSA 39:5מּה
חדּל finite
PSA 39:5חדּל
ימּי my days
PSA 39:6יוםּ
כּאיןּ is as nothing
PSA 39:6איןּ
נּגּדּךּ before you
PSA 39:6נּגּדּ
יתּהלךּ walks
PSA 39:7הלךּ
ולא and don't
PSA 39:7לא
ידּע know
PSA 39:7ידּע
מּה why
PSA 39:8מּה
הצילנּי deliver me
PSA 39:9נּצל
לא not
PSA 39:10לא
עשׂיתּ you had made it so
PSA 39:10עשׂה
ידּךּ your hand
PSA 39:11ידּ
עוןּ iniquity
PSA 39:12עוןּ
עמּךּ with you
PSA 39:13עםּ
מּמּנּי at me
PSA 39:14מּןּ
ואבּליגּה and I will smile
PSA 39:14בּלגּ
בּטרםּ ere
PSA 39:14טרםּ
אלךּ I walk off
PSA 39:14הלךּ
ואינּנּי and there is no me
PSA 39:14איןּ
Job 10 begins with a tri-colon, 7 syllables, 12 letters each line, and ends with a verse that has no rest. There is no obvious verbal frame to this chapter, but there is a musical frame joining verse 3 and 22. Is it good that you oppress and to the land of darkness. I will add the pdf.

נָֽקְטָ֥ה נַפְשִׁ֗י בְּחַ֫יָּ֥י
אֶֽעֶזְבָ֣ה עָלַ֣י שִׂיחִ֑י
אֲ֝דַבְּרָה֗ בְּמַ֣ר נַפְשִֽׁי
1In my life, I put up with my being.
I forsake my blathering over me.
I speak in the bitterness of my being.
7
7
7
12
12
12
אֹמַ֣ר אֶל־אֱ֭לוֹהַּ אַל־תַּרְשִׁיעֵ֑נִי
הֽ֝וֹדִיעֵ֗נִי עַ֣ל מַה־תְּרִיבֵֽנִי
2I said to God, Do not condemn me.
Let me know why you contend with me.
11
10
18
17
הֲט֤וֹב לְךָ֨ ׀ כִּֽי־תַעֲשֹׁ֗ק כִּֽי־תִ֭מְאַס יְגִ֣יעַ כַּפֶּ֑יךָ
וְעַל־עֲצַ֖ת רְשָׁעִ֣ים הוֹפָֽעְתָּ
3Is it good to you that you oppress, that you refuse the exertion of your palms,
and shine on the counsel of the wicked?
16
10
26
16
הַעֵינֵ֣י בָשָׂ֣ר לָ֑ךְ
אִם־כִּרְא֖וֹת אֱנ֣וֹשׁ תִּרְאֶֽה
4Eyes of flesh have you
that you see as a mortal sees?
6
7
10
15
הֲכִימֵ֣י אֱנ֣וֹשׁ יָמֶ֑יךָ
אִם־שְׁ֝נוֹתֶ֗יךָ כִּ֣ימֵי גָֽבֶר
5Are your days as the days of a mortal
as if your years be as the days of a valiant one,
8
9
13
15
כִּֽי־תְבַקֵּ֥שׁ לַעֲוֺנִ֑י
וּ֭לְחַטָּאתִ֥י תִדְרֽוֹשׁ
6that you seek my iniquity
and my sin search out?
8
6
11
12
עַֽל־דַּ֭עְתְּךָ כִּי־לֹ֣א אֶרְשָׁ֑ע
וְאֵ֖ין מִיָּדְךָ֣ מַצִּֽיל
7Is it in your knowledge that I am not wicked,
but there is no delivery from your hand?
7
7
14
12
יָדֶ֣יךָ עִ֭צְּבוּנִי וַֽיַּעֲשׂ֑וּנִי
יַ֥חַד סָ֝בִ֗יב וַֽתְּבַלְּעֵֽנִי
8Your hands configured me and made me,
together surrounding, yet you swallow me.
11
8
17
14
זְכָר־נָ֭א כִּי־כַחֹ֣מֶר עֲשִׂיתָ֑נִי
וְֽאֶל־עָפָ֥ר שִׁיבֵֽנִי
9Remember, if you will, that as clay you made me
and to dust you will return me.
10
7
17
11
הֲלֹ֣א כֶ֭חָלָב תַּתִּיכֵ֑נִי
וְ֝כַגְּבִנָּ֗ה תַּקְפִּיאֵֽנִי
10Have you not as milk poured me forth,
and as cheese curdled me?
9
8
13
13
ע֣וֹר וּ֭בָשָׂר תַּלְבִּישֵׁ֑נִי
וּֽבַעֲצָמ֥וֹת וְ֝גִידִ֗ים תְּסֹכְכֵֽנִי
11Skin and flesh - you clothed me
and with bones and sinews you entwined me.
8
12
14
19
חַיִּ֣ים וָ֭חֶסֶד עָשִׂ֣יתָ עִמָּדִ֑י
וּ֝פְקֻדָּתְךָ֗ שָֽׁמְרָ֥ה רוּחִֽי
12Life and loving-kindness you made about me
and your visit - you watch my spirit.
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8
16
14
וְ֭אֵלֶּה צָפַ֣נְתָּ בִלְבָבֶ֑ךָ
יָ֝דַ֗עְתִּי כִּי־זֹ֥את עִמָּֽךְ
13And these things you treasured in your heart.
I know this is with you.
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7
13
13
אִם־חָטָ֥אתִי וּשְׁמַרְתָּ֑נִי
וּ֝מֵעֲוֺנִ֗י לֹ֣א תְנַקֵּֽנִי
14If I have sinned, you watch me,
and from my iniquity you will not acquit me.
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10
14
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אִם־רָשַׁ֡עְתִּי אַלְלַ֬י לִ֗י וְ֭צָדַקְתִּי לֹא־אֶשָּׂ֣א רֹאשִׁ֑י
שְׂבַ֥ע קָ֝ל֗וֹן וּרְאֵ֥ה עָנְיִֽי
15If I have been wicked - alack for me, or I am righteous, I will not lift up my head.
Sated of disgrace, so you see my poverty.
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8
28
15
וְ֭יִגְאֶה כַּשַּׁ֣חַל תְּצוּדֵ֑נִי
וְ֝תָשֹׁ֗ב תִּתְפַּלָּא־בִֽי
16And proud as the aged beast you hound,
you return demonstrating wonders in me.
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7
15
11
תְּחַדֵּ֬שׁ עֵדֶ֨יךָ ׀ נֶגְדִּ֗י וְתֶ֣רֶב כַּֽ֭עַשְׂךָ עִמָּדִ֑י
חֲלִיפ֖וֹת וְצָבָ֣א עִמִּֽי
17You make new your witnesses before me and increase your grief against me.
Relief and a host are with me.
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8
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13
וְלָ֣מָּה מֵ֭רֶחֶם הֹצֵאתָ֑נִי
אֶ֝גְוַ֗ע וְעַ֣יִן לֹא־תִרְאֵֽנִי
18So why from the womb did you bring me forth?
I expire and no eye will see me.
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8
14
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כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־הָיִ֣יתִי אֶהְיֶ֑ה
מִ֝בֶּ֗טֶן לַקֶּ֥בֶר אוּבָֽל
19For as I had not been, I will be.
From the belly to the tomb I am brought.
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8
15
12
הֲלֹא־מְעַ֣ט יָמַ֣י יחדל וַחֲדָ֑ל
ישית וְשִׁ֥ית מִ֝מֶּ֗נִּי וְאַבְלִ֥יגָה מְּעָֽט
20Are not they few - my days, and finite?
And lay off from me and I will smile a little.
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22
בְּטֶ֣רֶם אֵ֭לֵךְ וְלֹ֣א אָשׁ֑וּב
אֶל־אֶ֖רֶץ חֹ֣שֶׁךְ וְצַלְמָֽוֶת
21From ere I walk nor will I return
to the land of darkness and shadow of death,
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9
14
14
אֶ֤רֶץ עֵיפָ֨תָה ׀ כְּמ֥וֹ אֹ֗פֶל צַ֭לְמָוֶת וְלֹ֥א סְדָרִ֗ים וַתֹּ֥פַע כְּמוֹ־אֹֽפֶל פ22a land of faintness like gloom shadowing death and without order, shining like gloom. P2438
And here is the Psalm
לַמְנַצֵּ֥חַ לידיתון לִֽידוּת֗וּן מִזְמ֥וֹר לְדָוִֽד1For the leader. Of Jeduthun. A psalm of David.1628
אָמַ֗רְתִּי אֶֽשְׁמְרָ֣ה דְרָכַי֮ מֵחֲט֪וֹא בִלְשׁ֫וֹנִ֥י
אֶשְׁמְרָ֥ה לְפִ֥י מַחְס֑וֹם
בְּעֹ֖ד רָשָׁ֣ע לְנֶגְדִּֽי
2I said I will keep my ways from sin with my tongue.
I will keep my mouth muzzled,
while a wicked thought is before me.
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7
7
25
13
11
נֶאֱלַ֣מְתִּי ד֭וּמִיָּה הֶחֱשֵׁ֣יתִי מִטּ֑וֹב
וּכְאֵבִ֥י נֶעְכָּֽר
3I was dumb mute. I was calm from good,
and my sorrow was agitated.
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5
21
9
חַם־לִבִּ֨י ׀ בְּקִרְבִּ֗י בַּהֲגִיגִ֥י תִבְעַר־אֵ֑שׁ
דִּ֝בַּ֗רְתִּי בִּלְשֽׁוֹנִי
4Hot was my heart within me. In musing fire kindled.
I spoke with my tongue.
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6
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11
הוֹדִ֘יעֵ֤נִי יְהוָ֨ה ׀ קִצִּ֗י וּמִדַּ֣ת יָמַ֣י מַה־הִ֑יא
אֵ֝דְעָ֗ה מֶה־חָדֵ֥ל אָֽנִי
5Make me know, Yahweh, my end and the measure such as it is, of my days.
Let me know how finite I am!
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7
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12
הִנֵּ֤ה טְפָח֨וֹת ׀ נָ֘תַ֤תָּה יָמַ֗י וְחֶלְדִּ֣י כְאַ֣יִן נֶגְדֶּ֑ךָ
אַ֥ךְ כָּֽל־הֶ֥בֶל כָּל־אָ֝דָ֗ם נִצָּ֥ב סֶֽלָה
6Here are the hand-breadths you have given as my days, but my transience is as nothing before you.
Surely all futility, every earthling taking a stand. Selah.
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18
אַךְ־בְּצֶ֤לֶם ׀ יִֽתְהַלֶּךְ־אִ֗ישׁ אַךְ־הֶ֥בֶל יֶהֱמָי֑וּן
יִ֝צְבֹּ֗ר וְֽלֹא־יֵדַ֥ע מִי־אֹסְפָֽם
7Surely in a semblance a person walks. Surely futility they murmur.
They accumulate things and don't know who will get them next.
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9
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16
וְעַתָּ֣ה מַה־קִּוִּ֣יתִי אֲדֹנָ֑י
תּ֝וֹחַלְתִּ֗י לְךָ֣ הִֽיא
8And now why do I wait, my Lord?
my hope? It is of you.
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6
15
11
מִכָּל־פְּשָׁעַ֥י הַצִּילֵ֑נִי
חֶרְפַּ֥ת נָ֝בָ֗ל אַל־תְּשִׂימֵֽנִי
9From all my transgressions deliver me.
Do not set me up as a reproach of the senseless.
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9
13
15
נֶ֭אֱלַמְתִּי לֹ֣א אֶפְתַּח־פִּ֑י
כִּ֖י אַתָּ֣ה עָשִֽׂיתָ
10I was dumb. I was not opening my mouth,
because you yourself had made it so.
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6
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9
הָסֵ֣ר מֵעָלַ֣י נִגְעֶ֑ךָ
מִתִּגְרַ֥ת יָ֝דְךָ֗ אֲנִ֣י כָלִֽיתִי
11Put aside from me your touch.
From the stroke of your hand, I, I am finished.
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10
11
16
בְּֽתוֹכָ֘ח֤וֹת עַל־עָוֺ֨ן ׀ יִסַּ֬רְתָּ אִ֗ישׁ וַתֶּ֣מֶס כָּעָ֣שׁ חֲמוּד֑וֹ
אַ֤ךְ הֶ֖בֶל כָּל־אָדָ֣ם סֶֽלָה
12With corrections over iniquity, you chasten a person and its attractiveness dissolves like a moth.
Surely every earthling is futility. Selah.
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8
31
13
שִֽׁמְעָ֥ה־תְפִלָּתִ֨י ׀ יְהוָ֡ה וְשַׁוְעָתִ֨י ׀ הַאֲזִינָה֮ אֶֽל־דִּמְעָתִ֗י אַֽל־תֶּ֫חֱרַ֥שׁ
כִּ֤י גֵ֣ר אָנֹכִ֣י עִמָּ֑ךְ
תּ֝וֹשָׁ֗ב כְּכָל־אֲבוֹתָֽי
13Hear my prayer Yahweh, and give ear to my cry. Do not be silent to my tears,
for a guest I am with you,
an emigrant as were all my ancestors.
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7
7
38
11
12
הָשַׁ֣ע מִמֶּ֣נִּי וְאַבְלִ֑יגָה
בְּטֶ֖רֶם אֵלֵ֣ךְ וְאֵינֶֽנִּי
14Look at me and I will smile,
ere I walk off and there is no me.
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9
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13