Monday, June 29, 2015

Lamentations 4

Here is the fourth acrostic in Lamentations. Finally I am up and running on my new box without hiccoughs. (hiccups)

The software is Oracle-XE, IIS, GX-LEAF forms and procedures which I have developed. The data is from tanach.us almost always kere. At this point I am not doing detailed work on text but just trying to become more fluent in reading. Note the imitation of the acrostic in the English. The first letter of each verse is an English equivalent of the Hebrew letter in Hebrew letter sequence. It is not easy reading and is filled with tragic images, much as is today's news.

Lamentations 4 Fn Min Max Syll
אֵיכָה֙ יוּעַ֣ם זָהָ֔ב יִשְׁנֶ֖א הַכֶּ֣תֶם הַטּ֑וֹב
תִּשְׁתַּפֵּ֙כְנָה֙ אַבְנֵי־קֹ֔דֶשׁ בְּרֹ֖אשׁ כָּל־חוּצֽוֹת ס
1 Ah how gold is dimmed. The finest gold, the good is mutated.
The stones of the sanctuary are poured out at the top of every street. S
3e 4B 13
13
בְּנֵ֤י צִיּוֹן֙ הַיְקָרִ֔ים הַמְסֻלָּאִ֖ים בַּפָּ֑ז
אֵיכָ֤ה נֶחְשְׁבוּ֙ לְנִבְלֵי־חֶ֔רֶשׂ מַעֲשֵׂ֖ה יְדֵ֥י יוֹצֵֽר ס
2 But the children of Zion, the precious ones, to be set side by side with pure gold,
how they are considered as earthenware skin-bottles made by the fashioner's hand. S
3e 4C 13
17
גַּם תַּנִּים֙ חָ֣לְצוּ שַׁ֔ד הֵינִ֖יקוּ גּוּרֵיהֶ֑ן
בַּת־עַמִּ֣י לְאַכְזָ֔ר כַּיְעֵנִ֖ים בַּמִּדְבָּֽר ס
3 ~ Great dragons bare a breast. They suckle their whelps.
The daughter of my people is vicious like the ostriches in the wilderness. S
3e 4B 12
13
דָּבַ֨ק לְשׁ֥וֹן יוֹנֵ֛ק אֶל־חכּ֖וֹ בַּצָּמָ֑א
עֽוֹלָלִים֙ שָׁ֣אֲלוּ לֶ֔חֶם פֹּרֵ֖שׂ אֵ֥ין לָהֶֽם ס
4 Direct to its palate the tongue of the suckling cleaves in its thirst.
Babies ask for bread. There is no one to spread it for them. S
3d 4B 12
14
הָאֹֽכְלִים֙ לְמַ֣עֲדַנִּ֔ים נָשַׁ֖מּוּ בַּחוּצ֑וֹת
הָאֱמֻנִים֙ עֲלֵ֣י תוֹלָ֔ע חִבְּק֖וּ אַשְׁפַּתּֽוֹת ס
5 How they who ate specialty foods are desolate in the streets.
They who were reared faithfully on crimson clasp at garbage dumps. S
3e 4B 14
14
וַיִּגְדַּל֙ עֲוֺ֣ן בַּת־עַמִּ֔י מֵֽחַטַּ֖את סְדֹ֑ם
הַֽהֲפוּכָ֣ה כְמוֹ־רָ֔גַע וְלֹא־חָ֥לוּ בָ֖הּ יָדָֽיִם ס
6 Visualize the iniquity of the daughter of my people, greater than the sin of Sodom.
She is changed as in a moment and no wealth in her hands. S
3e 4B 13
15
זַכּ֤וּ נְזִירֶ֙יהָ֙ מִשֶּׁ֔לֶג צַח֖וּ מֵחָלָ֑ב
אָ֤דְמוּ עֶ֙צֶם֙ מִפְּנִינִ֔ים סַפִּ֖יר גִּזְרָתָֽם ס
7 C Zero dirt, her Nazirites, clearer than snow, aglow from milk,
ruddier of bone than rubies, sapphire their polish. S
3e 4C 14
13
חָשַׁ֤ךְ מִשְּׁחוֹר֙ תָּֽאֳרָ֔ם לֹ֥א נִכְּר֖וּ בַּחוּצ֑וֹת
צָפַ֤ד עוֹרָם֙ עַל־עַצְמָ֔ם יָבֵ֖שׁ הָיָ֥ה כָעֵֽץ ס
8 How their form is darker than black, unrecognizable in the streets.
Their skin adheres on their bones. Dried up, it becomes like a tree. S
3e 4C 13
14
טוֹבִ֤ים הָיוּ֙ חַלְלֵי־חֶ֔רֶב מֵֽחַלְלֵ֖י רָעָ֑ב
שֶׁ֣הֵ֤ם יָז֙וּבוּ֙ מְדֻקָּרִ֔ים מִתְּנוּבֹ֖ת שָׂדָֽי ס
9 The profaned of a sword are better than the profaned of famine,
for these gush out, thrust through for the profit of the field. S
3e 4C 12
15
יְדֵ֗י נָשִׁים֙ רַחֲמָ֣נִיּ֔וֹת בִּשְּׁל֖וּ יַלְדֵיהֶ֑ן
הָי֤וּ לְבָרוֹת֙ לָ֔מוֹ בְּשֶׁ֖בֶר בַּת־עַמִּֽי ס
10 Yea the hands of compassionate women have boiled their newborn.
They become meals for them in the brokenness of the daughter of my people. S
3e 4C 14
14
כִּלָּ֤ה יְהוָה֙ אֶת־חֲמָת֔וֹ שָׁפַ֖ךְ חֲר֣וֹן אַפּ֑וֹ
וַיַּצֶּת־אֵ֣שׁ בְּצִיּ֔וֹן וַתֹּ֖אכַל יְסוֹדֹתֶֽיהָ ס
11 Know that Yahweh has finished his heat. He has poured out his burning anger,
and it has brought out fire in Zion and devoured her foundations. S
3e 4C 14
16
לֹ֤א הֶאֱמִ֙ינוּ֙ מַלְכֵי־אֶ֔רֶץ כֹּ֖ל יֹשְׁבֵ֣י תֵבֵ֑ל
כִּ֤י יָבֹא֙ צַ֣ר וְאוֹיֵ֔ב בְּשַׁעֲרֵ֖י יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם ס
12 C Leaders of the earth, all inhabitants of the world, would not have believed,
that trouble and enemy would come into the gates of Jerusalem. S
3e 4C 13
16
מֵֽחַטֹּ֣את נְבִיאֶ֔יהָ עֲוֺנ֖וֹת כֹּהֲנֶ֑יהָ
הַשֹּׁפְכִ֥ים בְּקִרְבָּ֖הּ דַּ֥ם צַדִּיקִֽים ס
13 Mid the sin of her prophets, the iniquities of her priests,
poured out within her is the blood of the righteous. S
3e 4B 14
11
נָע֤וּ עִוְרִים֙ בַּֽחוּצ֔וֹת נְגֹֽאֲל֖וּ בַּדָּ֑ם
בְּלֹ֣א יֽוּכְל֔וּ יִגְּע֖וּ בִּלְבֻשֵׁיהֶֽם ס
14 C Nodding about, blind in the streets, redeemed with blood,
they were not able to touch their clothing. S
3e 4C 12
11
ס֣וּרוּ טָמֵ֞א קָ֣רְאוּ לָ֗מוֹ ס֤וּרוּ ס֙וּרוּ֙ אַל־תִּגָּ֔עוּ כִּ֥י נָצ֖וּ גַּם־נָ֑עוּ
אָֽמְרוּ֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֔ם לֹ֥א יוֹסִ֖יפוּ לָגֽוּר ס
15 B Scamper off unclean, they call to them. Depart! Depart! Do not touch! for they struggled, even tottering.
They say in the nations, They will not again reside here. S
3e 4C 22
12
פְּנֵ֤י יְהוָה֙ חִלְּקָ֔ם לֹ֥א יוֹסִ֖יף לְהַבִּיטָ֑ם
פְּנֵ֤י כֹהֲנִים֙ לֹ֣א נָשָׂ֔אוּ וּזְקֵנִ֖ים לֹ֥א חָנָֽנוּ ס
16 Presence divides them. Yahweh will not again take note of them.
They did not bear the presence of the priests, and the elders were not gracious. S
3e 4C 13
17
עוֹדֵ֙ינוּ֙ תִּכְלֶ֣ינָה עֵינֵ֔ינוּ אֶל־עֶזְרָתֵ֖נוּ הָ֑בֶל
בְּצִפִּיָּתֵ֣נוּ צִפִּ֔ינוּ אֶל־גּ֖וֹי לֹ֥א יוֹשִֽׁעַ ס
17 Indeed for us, our eyes faint over our futile help.
In our lookout we spied on a nation he will not save. S
3e 4B 16
17
צָד֣וּ צְעָדֵ֔ינוּ מִלֶּ֖כֶת בִּרְחֹבֹתֵ֑ינוּ
קָרַ֥ב קִצֵּ֛ינוּ מָלְא֥וּ יָמֵ֖ינוּ כִּי־בָ֥א קִצֵּֽינוּ ס
18 B 'ts-our march they hound, more than going into our piazzas.
Near is our end. Fulfilled are our days, for our end is come. S
3d 4B 14
15
קַלִּ֤ים הָיוּ֙ רֹדְפֵ֔ינוּ מִנִּשְׁרֵ֖י שָׁמָ֑יִם
עַל־הֶהָרִ֣ים דְּלָקֻ֔נוּ בַּמִּדְבָּ֖ר אָ֥רְבוּ לָֽנוּ ס
19 Quicker are our persecutors than the eagles of the heavens.
On the hills they hotly pursued us. In the wilderness they lie in wait for us. S
3e 4C 13
16
ר֤וּחַ אַפֵּ֙ינוּ֙ מְשִׁ֣יחַ יְהוָ֔ה נִלְכַּ֖ד בִּשְׁחִיתוֹתָ֑ם
אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָמַ֔רְנוּ בְּצִלּ֖וֹ נִֽחְיֶ֥ה בַגּוֹיִֽם ס
20 C Removed in their destruction is the spirit of our anger, the anointed of Yahweh,
of whom we said, In his shadow we will be guided among the nations. S
3e 4C 16
14
שִׂ֤ישִׂי וְשִׂמְחִי֙ בַּת־אֱד֔וֹם יוֹשֶׁ֖בֶת בְּאֶ֣רֶץ ע֑וּץ
גַּם־עָלַ֙יִךְ֙ תַּעֲבָר־כּ֔וֹס תִּשְׁכְּרִ֖י וְתִתְעָרִֽי ס
21 C Sing, rejoice and be glad, daughter of Edom that sits in the land of Uz.
Even to you a cup will pass. You will be intoxicated and will expose yourself. S
3e 4C 15
16
תַּם־עֲוֺנֵךְ֙ בַּת־צִיּ֔וֹן לֹ֥א יוֹסִ֖יף לְהַגְלוֹתֵ֑ךְ
פָּקַ֤ד עֲוֺנֵךְ֙ בַּת־אֱד֔וֹם גִּלָּ֖ה עַל־חַטֹּאתָֽיִךְ פ
22 Thus your iniquity is complete, daughter of Zion. Not again will he uncover you.
He will visit your iniquity daughter of Edom. He has uncovered your sins. P
3e 4C 14
16

Saturday, June 27, 2015

What is a mainstream scholar

We are lucky in these days to have interactions online with scholars from around the world and through the centuries. I have had more interaction with these people than I ever did with professors in University. Anthony LeDonne has posted a question on what is a mainstream scholar and then looked in Wikipedia to find his answer. (Read his post. I am sure you will see that A LeD has a good sense of humour.)

His post suggested in me some rules of thumb that determine for me if I will take what I hear from a scholar at its face value. These are the first five rules that came out of my head
I am not sure I like adjectives anyway, but here's my take on what is a scholar, mainstream or otherwise. 
  1. Scholar asks questions, especially about S's own assumptions.
  2. S seeks clarity rather than seeking to be obscure.
  3. S admits changes of mind, aka mistakes maybe.
  4. S recognizes that S does not know everything.
  5. S does S's homework at least some of the time.
These 5 are off the top of my head - there maybe more rules of thumb (rots) where these came from.
My sources are: for
  1. Northrope Fry (The Great Code introduction),
  2. The principles of system design, press where there is lack of clarity - there's where the errors lie.
  3. The Bible, turn, return, etc (Psalm 80 or Lamentations Ierusalem, convertere ad Dominum Deum tuum)
  4. This one is hard - I don't want to recognize it or allow that I have a source for such knowledge.
  5. I have finally gotten this far at least once in my life. The lesson can only be learned, not taught.
And I have just thought of a sixth. A scholar does not perseverate, i.e., constantly repeat a thesis and sometimes just because no one is listening to the scholar's answers to big questions. I call to mind some Biblical translations that seek to prove a particular sectarian assumption. Perseveration is an understandable product of some kinds of brain damage and other insecurities. It is caused when feedback from normal communications cannot be perceived by the one who is perseverating. The loving person will listen even when it is very difficult.

Of course I have and have had my own axes to grind.

Lamentations 2

Mothers eating their children. This acrostic, the second of four in this five chapter book, pulls no punches. In spite of the depth of trouble, trouble does not show up too heavily in the domain percentages, but perhaps, as it is with all of us, a little permeates the whole. If there were no creation and no promise, trouble would not be so poetically expressed.

As is my wont, I have rendered this game with English letters in Hebrew order beginning each verse to show the poetic play that is evident in the lament.

The right hand columns are, as usual, the syllables and letter counts before and after the main break in the verse, in the case of this poem with prose markings, it is the atnah ^ only that is noted as a carriage return. But in contrast the the sort sharp cola of poetry, these paragraphs are long and multi phrased.

I am now in a position, thanks to my research staff,  to more fully automate the music and I will shortly update all the music XML in the shared link. [2017, the text now displays some features of the music, First note, Min and Max notes.]

Lamentations 2 Fn Min Max Syll
אֵיכָה֩ יָעִ֨יב בְּאַפּ֤וֹ ׀ אֲדֹנָי֙ אֶת־בַּת־צִיּ֔וֹן הִשְׁלִ֤יךְ מִשָּׁמַ֙יִם֙ אֶ֔רֶץ תִּפְאֶ֖רֶת יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וְלֹא־זָכַ֥ר הֲדֹם־רַגְלָ֖יו בְּי֥וֹם אַפּֽוֹ
1 Ah, how my Lord has clouded in his anger the daughter of Zion. He has cast down from heaven to earth the adornment of Israel,
and he has not remembered his footstool in the day of his anger.
3e 4C 27
11
בִּלַּ֨ע אֲדֹנָ֜י וְלֹ֣א חָמַ֗ל אֵ֚ת כָּל־נְא֣וֹת יַעֲקֹ֔ב הָרַ֧ס בְּעֶבְרָת֛וֹ מִבְצְרֵ֥י בַת־יְהוּדָ֖ה הִגִּ֣יעַ לָאָ֑רֶץ
חִלֵּ֥ל מַמְלָכָ֖ה וְשָׂרֶֽיהָ
2 Blasted and without pity, my Lord, are all the haunts of Jacob. He has overthrown in his fury the enclosures of the daughter of Judah. He has touched on the earth.
He has profaned her kingdom and her nobility.
3c 4C 35
9
גָּדַ֣ע בָּֽחֳרִיאַ֗ף כֹּ֚ל קֶ֣רֶן יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הֵשִׁ֥יב אָח֛וֹר יְמִינ֖וֹ מִפְּנֵ֣י אוֹיֵ֑ב
וַיִּבְעַ֤ר בְּיַעֲקֹב֙ כְּאֵ֣שׁ לֶֽהָבָ֔ה אָכְלָ֖ה סָבִֽיב
3 Glowing in anger, he has chopped off every horn of Israel. He has turned back his right hand from the face of an enemy,
and he has kindled in Jacob, as a fiery flame devours round about.
3d 4C 23
16
דָּרַ֨ךְ קַשְׁתּ֜וֹ כְּאוֹיֵ֗ב נִצָּ֤ב יְמִינוֹ֙ כְּצָ֔ר וַֽיַּהֲרֹ֔ג כֹּ֖ל מַחֲמַדֵּי־עָ֑יִן
בְּאֹ֙הֶל֙ בַּת־צִיּ֔וֹן שָׁפַ֥ךְ כָּאֵ֖שׁ חֲמָתֽוֹ
4 Directed has he his bow, like an enemy standing firm, his right hand as adversary, and he slew all that is attractive to an eye.
In the tent of the daughter of Zion, he poured out as fire his heat.
3e 4C 24
13
הָיָ֨ה אֲדֹנָ֤י ׀ כְּאוֹיֵב֙ בִּלַּ֣ע יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בִּלַּע֙ כָּל־אַרְמְנוֹתֶ֔יהָ שִׁחֵ֖ת מִבְצָרָ֑יו
וַיֶּ֙רֶב֙ בְּבַת־יְהוּדָ֔ה תַּאֲנִיָּ֖ה וַאֲנִיָּֽה
5 He, my Lord, becomes as an enemy. He has engulfed Israel. He has engulfed all her citadels. He has destroyed his own enclosures.
And he has increased in the daughter of Judah her mournful moaning.
3e 4C 26
16
וַיַּחְמֹ֤ס כַּגַּן֙ שֻׂכּ֔וֹ שִׁחֵ֖ת מוֹעֲד֑וֹ
שִׁכַּ֨ח יְהוָ֤ה ׀ בְּצִיּוֹן֙ מוֹעֵ֣ד וְשַׁבָּ֔ת וַיִּנְאַ֥ץ בְּזַֽעַם־אַפּ֖וֹ מֶ֥לֶךְ וְכֹהֵֽן
6 Violently he removed as a garden his booth. He has destroyed his engagement.
Yahweh has let engagement and Sabbath in Zion be forgotten and he has spurned in the indignation of his anger king and priest.
3e 4C 12
25
זָנַ֨ח אֲדֹנָ֤י ׀ מִזְבְּחוֹ֙ נִאֵ֣ר מִקְדָּשׁ֔וֹ הִסְגִּיר֙ בְּיַד־אוֹיֵ֔ב חוֹמֹ֖ת אַרְמְנוֹתֶ֑יהָ
ק֛וֹל נָתְנ֥וּ בְּבֵית־יְהוָ֖ה כְּי֥וֹם מוֹעֵֽד
7 Zeroed has my Lord his altar. He has nullified his sanctuary. He has imprisoned by the hand of an enemy the walls of her citadels.
They give voice in the house of Yahweh as in the day of engagement.
3d 4C 26
11
חָשַׁ֨ב יְהוָ֤ה ׀ לְהַשְׁחִית֙ חוֹמַ֣ת בַּת־צִיּ֔וֹן נָ֣טָה קָ֔ו לֹא־הֵשִׁ֥יב יָד֖וֹ מִבַּלֵּ֑עַ
וַיַּֽאֲבֶל־חֵ֥ל וְחוֹמָ֖ה יַחְדָּ֥ו אֻמְלָֽלוּ
8 He had, Yahweh, considered destroying the walls of the daughter of Zion. He had stretched out on her a line. He has not turned his hand from engulfing.
But he made bulwark and wall lament. As one they were enfeebled.
3e 4C 23
13
טָבְע֤וּ בָאָ֙רֶץ֙ שְׁעָרֶ֔יהָ אִבַּ֥ד וְשִׁבַּ֖ר בְּרִיחֶ֑יהָ
מַלְכָּ֨הּ וְשָׂרֶ֤יהָ בַגּוֹיִם֙ אֵ֣ין תּוֹרָ֔ה גַּם־נְבִיאֶ֕יהָ לֹא־מָצְא֥וּ חָז֖וֹן מֵיְהוָֽה
9 To the earth are her gates sunk. Perished and shattered are her bars.
Her king and her nobility are in the nations. There is no instruction. Even her prophets find no vision from Yahweh.
3e 4C 18
25
יֵשְׁב֨וּ לָאָ֤רֶץ יִדְּמוּ֙ זִקְנֵ֣י בַת־צִיּ֔וֹן הֶֽעֱל֤וּ עָפָר֙ עַל־רֹאשָׁ֔ם חָגְר֖וּ שַׂקִּ֑ים
הוֹרִ֤ידוּ לָאָ֙רֶץ֙ רֹאשָׁ֔ן בְּתוּלֹ֖ת יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם
10 Yet mute on earth, the elders of the daughter of Zion sit. They have offered up dust on their heads. They wear sackcloth.
Hanging down their heads to the earth are the virgins of Jerusalem.
3e 4C 24
15
כָּל֨וּ בַדְּמָע֤וֹת עֵינַי֙ חֳמַרְמְר֣וּ מֵעַ֔י נִשְׁפַּ֤ךְ לָאָ֙רֶץ֙ כְּבֵדִ֔י עַל־שֶׁ֖בֶר בַּת־עַמִּ֑י
בֵּֽעָטֵ֤ף עוֹלֵל֙ וְיוֹנֵ֔ק בִּרְחֹב֖וֹת קִרְיָֽה
11 ~ Consumed in tears are my eyes, distended my inner parts, poured out on earth my liver, over the shattering of the daughter of my people,
in the overwhelming of babies and nurslings in the piazzas of the town.
3e 4C 27
13
לְאִמֹּתָם֙ יֹֽאמְר֔וּ אַיֵּ֖ה דָּגָ֣ן וָיָ֑יִן
בְּהִֽתְעַטְּפָ֤ם כֶּֽחָלָל֙ בִּרְחֹב֣וֹת עִ֔יר בְּהִשְׁתַּפֵּ֣ךְ נַפְשָׁ֔ם אֶל־חֵ֖יק אִמֹּתָֽם
12 Looking to their mothers, they say, Where is grain and wine,
when they are disabled as as one who is profaned in the piazzas of the city, when poured out are their beings into their mother's bosom?
3e 4C 13
22
מָֽה־אֲעִידֵ֞ךְ מָ֣ה אֲדַמֶּה־לָּ֗ךְ הַבַּת֙ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם מָ֤ה אַשְׁוֶה־לָּךְ֙ וַאֲנַֽחֲמֵ֔ךְ בְּתוּלַ֖ת בַּת־צִיּ֑וֹן
כִּֽי־גָד֥וֹל כַּיָּ֛ם שִׁבְרֵ֖ךְ מִ֥י יִרְפָּא־לָֽךְ
13 My witness for you, what will it be like for you, O daughter of Jerusalem? What will I consider equal to you that I may comfort you, virgin daughter of Zion?
For great as the sea is your shattering. Who will heal you?
3d 4C 30
10
נְבִיאַ֗יִךְ חָ֤זוּ לָךְ֙ שָׁ֣וְא וְתָפֵ֔ל וְלֹֽא־גִלּ֥וּ עַל־עֲוֺנֵ֖ךְ לְהָשִׁ֣יב שְׁבוּתֵ֑ךְ
וַיֶּ֣חֱזוּ לָ֔ךְ מַשְׂא֥וֹת שָׁ֖וְא וּמַדּוּחִֽים
14 Nothing worth to you were your prophets' visions. They were insipid for they did not disclose your iniquity to turn away your captivity,
but their visions for you were loads of vanity and enticements.
3e 4C 24
12
סָֽפְק֨וּ עָלַ֤יִךְ כַּפַּ֙יִם֙ כָּל־עֹ֣בְרֵי דֶ֔רֶךְ שָֽׁרְקוּ֙ וַיָּנִ֣עוּ רֹאשָׁ֔ם עַל־בַּ֖ת יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
הֲזֹ֣את הָעִ֗יר שֶׁיֹּֽאמְרוּ֙ כְּלִ֣ילַת יֹ֔פִי מָשׂ֖וֹשׂ לְכָל־הָאָֽרֶץ
15 So they cuff you with the flat of the hand, all passing this way. They hiss and wag their heads at the daughter of Jerusalem.
Is this the city that they say is the perfection of beauty? the joy of the whole earth?
3e 4C 26
19
פָּצ֨וּ עָלַ֤יִךְ פִּיהֶם֙ כָּל־א֣וֹיְבַ֔יִךְ שָֽׁרְקוּ֙ וַיַּֽחַרְקוּ־שֵׁ֔ן אָמְר֖וּ בִּלָּ֑עְנוּ
אַ֣ךְ זֶ֥ה הַיּ֛וֹם שֶׁקִּוִּינֻ֖הוּ מָצָ֥אנוּ רָאִֽינוּ
16 ~ Parted open against you are their mouths. All your enemies hiss and they gnash tooth. They say - We have engulfed.
Surely, this day that we have been waiting for, we have found, we have seen.
3d 4C 23
15
עָשָׂ֨ה יְהוָ֜ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר זָמָ֗ם בִּצַּ֤ע אֶמְרָתוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוָּ֣ה מִֽימֵי־קֶ֔דֶם הָרַ֖ס וְלֹ֣א חָמָ֑ל
וַיְשַׂמַּ֤ח עָלַ֙יִךְ֙ אוֹיֵ֔ב הֵרִ֖ים קֶ֥רֶן צָרָֽיִךְ
17 It was done by Yahweh, that which he intended. He has violently attained his promise that he commanded from the days of old. He has overthrown without pity,
and he has made an enemy glad over you, exalting the horn of your foes.
3e 4C 26
15
צָעַ֥ק לִבָּ֖ם אֶל־אֲדֹנָ֑י
חוֹמַ֣ת בַּת־צִ֠יּוֹן הוֹרִ֨ידִי כַנַּ֤חַל דִּמְעָה֙ יוֹמָ֣ם וָלַ֔יְלָה אַֽל־תִּתְּנִ֤י פוּגַת֙ לָ֔ךְ אַל־תִּדֹּ֖ם בַּת־עֵינֵֽךְ
18 'ts crying out, their heart, to my Lord.
O wall of the daughter of Zion, let tears run down as a torrent day and night. Give yourself no respite, no mute for your eye's pupil.
3e 4C 8
30
ק֣וּמִי ׀ רֹ֣נִּי בַלַּ֗יְלָה לְרֹאשׁ֙ אַשְׁמֻר֔וֹת שִׁפְכִ֤י כַמַּ֙יִם֙ לִבֵּ֔ךְ נֹ֖כַח פְּנֵ֣י אֲדֹנָ֑י
שְׂאִ֧י אֵלָ֣יו כַּפַּ֗יִךְ עַל־נֶ֙פֶשׁ֙ עֽוֹלָלַ֔יִךְ הָעֲטוּפִ֥ים בְּרָעָ֖ב בְּרֹ֥אשׁ כָּל־חוּצֽוֹת
19 B Quicken, shout in the night. In the beginning of the night watches, pour out like water your heart opposite the face of my Lord.
Lift up your palms to him for the integrity of your babies that are disabled from scarcity at the top of every street.
3c 4C 25
26
רְאֵ֤ה יְהוָה֙ וְֽהַבִּ֔יטָה לְמִ֖י עוֹלַ֣לְתָּ כֹּ֑ה
אִם־תֹּאכַ֨לְנָה נָשִׁ֤ים פִּרְיָם֙ עֹלֲלֵ֣י טִפֻּחִ֔ים אִם־יֵהָרֵ֛ג בְּמִקְדַּ֥שׁ אֲדֹנָ֖י כֹּהֵ֥ן וְנָבִֽיא
20 Regard, Yahweh, and take note whose is the wantonness thus?
As if women should devour their fruit, the babies in their cloak. As if in my Lord's sanctuary, priest and prophet should be slain.
3d 4C 14
29
שָׁכְב֨וּ לָאָ֤רֶץ חוּצוֹת֙ נַ֣עַר וְזָקֵ֔ן בְּתוּלֹתַ֥י וּבַחוּרַ֖י נָפְל֣וּ בֶחָ֑רֶב
הָרַ֙גְתָּ֙ בְּי֣וֹם אַפֶּ֔ךָ טָבַ֖חְתָּ לֹ֥א חָמָֽלְתָּ
21 Streets to earth littered with youth and aged, my virgins and and my chosen have fallen by the sword.
You have slain in the day of your anger. You have slaughtered without pity.
3e 4C 25
15
תִּקְרָא֩ כְי֨וֹם מוֹעֵ֤ד מְגוּרַי֙ מִסָּבִ֔יב וְלֹ֥א הָיָ֛ה בְּי֥וֹם אַף־יְהוָ֖ה פָּלִ֣יט וְשָׂרִ֑יד
אֲשֶׁר־טִפַּ֥חְתִּי וְרִבִּ֖יתִי אֹיְבִ֥י כִלָּֽם
22 Terrors around me you have called out, as on a day of engagement, so there will not be, in the day of the anger of Yahweh, security or survival.
Whom I cloaked and made abundant, my enemies have consumed.
3d 4C 26
13

Friday, June 26, 2015

Automation studies reported in JBL

I read this morning of computerized source criticism of Biblical Texts (Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol 134, No 2 page 253-271). I have not yet read this article in toto but I was surprised to see their dependence on the Strong's exhaustive concordance of 1890. I am even more surprised to see that they used the KJV to establish initial synonym sets. Should I consider this for real or is their experiment a study of the 17th century CE?

The Strong's numbering system, and decisions as to what is or is not a word, is about as confusing a starting point as I can imagine for using a language. I know some pastors who think that Hebrew is nothing but numbers. (Mind you, I would have loved this data as a starting point in 2006 if it had been available to me in a convertible form - i.e. one in which the whole concept could be redesigned.)

Strong's numbering is an early attempt at unique identification of words before the idea of identity was ever explored and clearly defined in database usage. Strong's applies a sequential number to each 'word' beginning at alef and ending with taf. When Strong's comes to mem and taf, not to mention others, it is clear that the numbering system cannot be sequential for we are in the midst of words derived from other words that do not relate to mem or taf in a sequential sense. Such identity is fine but it needs to be hidden. By that I mean it must be used as a pointer only, and that only by software, never by a human as if the number were meaningful. Identity should not be a property describing the object. (Alphabetic sequence is not a very useful property anyway except for dictionaries.) Of course the human was the only software when this was originally developed and we have to scan by some identifier if we want to find something in a list. Nevertheless, I am concerned that distinction of source material, style or author, arising out of this data and its implied assumptions about words, synonyms and homonyms will compromise from the outset any possible results. All it will do is prove the starting assumptions.

I admit it is convenient to have such data online for various queries about frequency of use and so on, but I search when I look at a word. One of my sources, the Blue Letter Bible, has at its base the same concordance and the same undisciplined and unsubstantiated use of synonyms, but it, at least, like hard-copy dictionaries such as Brown, Driver, Briggs, and my קונקורדנציה לתנייך (Latinate concordance) allow one to drill down the derivative pointers and begin to see the sound patterns that may be implied for individual words. I also make use of scripture4all.org, a serious ultra-literal and reasonably concordant interlinear that can sometimes be used to help decompose the Hebrew. BLB remains an apt and clever forward and reverse look-up and it has the merit of exposing the lack of concordance in the KJV, in spite of the limited pre-modern additional literature it has in its data.

Always I am aware of the need to question every assumption, especially my own when I can see them. Many who work in this field know far more than I do. I am a fly on the wall, and hopefully not a fly in the ointment. I think I must make use of all clues, not only considering words that carry significant semantic content, but also the little words and word forms that make up the grammar of Hebrew: article, particle, preposition, and so on. It is in the grammatical usage as well as random synonyms that distinctive authorial styles will emerge if indeed they can be seen 'objectively'. Hopefully there are many flies with lots of maggoty larvae working on the decomposition of this ancient body of text.

New and old ground, letting words grow, לחה וקרב

Working on the books of the Bible that I have sort-of worked on before is harder than working on books that I have not yet read in Hebrew. When I am on old ground, I have to recognize all the decisions I made 4 or 5 years ago that I would not make the same way today. My computer aided concordance rules were not written in those days (they began in 2012) so the number of unnecessary and conflicting synonyms in that earlier work is very high in these 'drafts'. Whereas when I work on what is to me virgin ground, my automated translation prompts are a real aid and new things open up about words I thought I knew. Sometimes they get more than half a verse more or less usefully glossed. And they stop me from using random synonyms.  (I am now extending my automation to pairs of words to pick up constructs and other multi-word phrases. I hope eventually to combine all my root derivation and grammar algorithms into one package.)

These are the counts by length of stem for the 25% of the Bible that I have in my data.
Length, count
1 3, these are the three pre-clitic prepositions ל, ב, and כ.
2  203, e.g. the one I note below לח.
3  1616, e.g. as also noted below, קרב.
4  260
5  117
6  27
7  5
8  1, e.g. נּבּוכּדּנּצר, Nebuchadnezzar 

The current distribution of these roots across the 60,000 or so words in my data so far is this
1  1171, these are typically prefix + pronoun
2  13904, 23%, these include a number of grammatical words
3  39692, 65%
4  4653
5  996
6  149
7  43
8  2
You can see that Hebrew is predominantly a tri-literal language.

I find myself working across several books at once. Here for instance is some of my recent history.
JOB-40.92015.06.26
DEUTERONOMY-19.62015.06.25
NUMBERS--6.32015.06.25
LAMENTATIONS--2.212015.06.23
JONAH--3.102015.06.23
ESTHER--9.92015.06.23
ZECHARIAH-14.182015.06.22
EXODUS-14.202015.06.22
PSALMS108.142015.06.22
GENESIS-24.382015.06.22
2 SAMUEL-12.202015.06.22
1 KINGS-17.142015.06.22

Numbers and Deuteronomy are new ground for me. Lamentations and Job are rework and therefore slower. Psalms 108 changed in that I had inadvertently switched to English verse numbering rather than Hebrew.

As I discover new conflicts in my own limited freedom with synonym usage, some earlier decisions have to be changed. One word I wrestled with in the past 24 hours is the rare לח, from an unused tri-literal root לחה. (So maybe I should list it as among the three letter roots, but it's in my length 2 list).

According to my Hebrew-Latin concordance, this root occurs 7 times, as sucus, humor, vigor aetatis in Deuteronomy 34:7, as humidus, recens in Genesis 30:37, and Ezekiel 17:24, 21:3, and in the plural in Numbers 6:3, Judges 16:7-8. You can confirm this with online resources such as the Blue letter Bible, the 6, and the unique once. What gloss will do for these? Is it green in the sense of unripe, or wetness, or vigour, or new? Could we read it in any sense as equivalent to these concepts in our language? One usage is uniquely applied to Moses at age 120, of the remaining half-dozen, another considers the Nazirite vow in Leviticus 1. It is an important word though rare. It could confirm suspicions of the impact of faith, that motive that causes the human to approach the Holy.

So what did I do (so far) with this word. I picked 'fresh' for the Nazirite vow - no fresh grapes, nor dried ones (raisins). No byproduct of the grape at all in the diet. Green could be used if one accepts the homonyms of green in English, but I think it is not what is considered here, and I already use it for the colour green in Psalm 52 (רענּןּ) and also the sense of luxuriant (that may be a luxury in my usage which I may remove later), And there is another word in Job 8 (רטב) that is green sometimes - but what sense of green in that passage from Bildad? There it may be simply 'wet' as in a wet blanket, (in spite of the sun).

In contrast, working in Leviticus 1, I have been noticing the tri-literal stem קרב, qof, resh, bet. It is rich in its reach as a word: approach, near, inner, close combat, innards, oblation, even inner thought or mind. This stem is used 17 times in the 17 first chapter of Leviticus. Leviticus describes the cult of sacrifice, i.e. how to approach the mystery with your offering (remember corban קרבן, in Mark 7:11).

קרב assignment of domain so far
Before I had seen Leviticus, I had thought of קרב as a word of approach and as a preposition. But its depth is only just opening up to me. In the chart, you can see that is occurs as preposition by itself and with a pronoun over 50% of the time in my data so far, and as a sense of approach and closeness most of the rest of the time, but Leviticus changes that perspective. In some sense it should not surprise me, for approach is one of five keywords that inform the epistle to the Hebrews in the NT.




Friday, June 19, 2015

A review of Seen from the Street

Tim Bulkeley of SansBlogue and BigBible.org has reviewed my recently published e-book, Seen from the Street. You can read his review here.

Index of names and references in Seen from the Street

This may help some readers of my e-book take note of the Scriptural background and other allusions in Seen from the Street. Since page numbers are not part of the e-book concept, all the page numbers are approximate. All entries are in alphabetical order. I am surprised there is no entry for T. S. Eliot - I am sure I was influenced by him in the period 1994-2005 when the book was written. In fact, The Journey of the Magi is referenced (Kindle location 3753), but I did not note it in the index those 10 years ago. While it may be that my thought process is Johannine, there is also considerable reference to the Pauline corpus, and far fewer allusions to Psalms than I would write today.


1 Corinthians
1.1, 59
1.14, 65, 107
1.23, 209
5.3, 90
6.12, 12.1ff, 131
6.19, 77, 111
6.20, 25
6.3, 252
7.22, 94
7.4, 251
8-11, 108
9.25, 76
10.23, 77, 129
11.21-22, 131
11.23, 17
11.26, 161
11.30, 191
12.12, 160
12-14, 165
13.13, 218
13.7, 156, 183
14.8, 166
15.28, 252
15.29, 193
15.45, 24
16.1, 111
16.15, 159
16.17, 111
1 John
1, 156
1.8-9, 114
2.10, 112
2.12-14, 112
2.14, 137, 169
2.16, 161
2.27, 113
3.20, 84, 182
3.22, 129
4, 223
4.7-11, 114
4.7-12, 91
5.21, 115
1 Kings
12.11, 136
19.12, 43
1 Peter
1.20, 223
2.5, 197
3.19, 123, 186
3.20, 27
5.8, 79
1 Samuel
12.3, 95
13.14, 184
19.24, 255
1 Thessalonians
1.2, 79
1 Timothy
2.5, 128, 181
5.23, 193
2 Corinthians
1.20, 169
1.22,5.5, 251
3.18, 131, 252
5, 210
5.19, 192
5.21, 203
8-9, 111
2 John
1.12, 139
2 Peter
3.10, 172
3.16, 139, 199
2 Samuel
12, 69
18.33, 124
19.7, 95
2 Timothy
1.2, 157
2.13, 84, 202
3 John
1,4,13, 112
Acts
2.23, 43
2.6, 42
3.6, 131
7.57-58, 44
11.26, 40
12.12, 254
15, 209
15.2, 148
17.28, 83
17.31, 77
18.11, 107
18.17, 59
18.18, 106
19.23, 59
20.9, 60
20.9-12, 16
21.3,15, 148
Alexander, 40, 41, 82, 136
Amos
3.6, 171
Aristotle, 64, 119, 136
Problemata, 64
Augustus, 264
Bach, St John Passion, 253
Barnabas, 90, 185, 194, 195, 198, 208, 226, 254
Bonhoeffer
Ethics, 81
Caesar, 19, 82, 226, 264, 265
Cephas, 195, 256
Chorazin, 70, 100, 133, 264, 265
Cicero, 264
Coliseum, 33, 197, 266
Colossians
1.13, 189
1.15-22, 74
2.11, 110, 209, 210
Communion, 192, 210, 251
Corinth, 18, 19, 21, 27, 33, 34, 35, 40, 49, 55, 56, 62, 76, 82, 90, 101, 102, 106, 107, 109, 112, 122, 125, 131, 150, 154, 159, 162, 163, 168, 189, 195, 198, 200, 205, 219, 221, 225, 226, 228, 238, 261, 262, 264, 265, 266
Cos, 22, 80
Covenant, 28, 143, 208, 210, 231
Cyprus, 18, 19, 90, 148, 149, 195, 197, 198, 231, 254, 261, 262, 266
Cyrene, 18, 33, 40, 41, 44, 196, 231, 237, 261, 262, 265
Dacia, 24, 25, 54, 56, 261
de la Mare, Walter
King David, 124
Deuteronomy
5.16, 83, 136
5.6, 85
10.9, 151, 201
12.5, 165
15.12, 93
15.16, 67, 93
16.6, 41
21.23, 49
30.12-14, 130
Ecclesiastes
11.5, 23, 84
Elpenor, 251
Ephesians
1.14, 252
3.9, 17
5, 223
5.14, 224
5.25, 78
5.27, 216
5.8, 166, 171
Ephesus, 22, 24, 49, 54, 56, 66, 67, 74, 77, 80, 90, 92, 106, 108, 109, 110, 111, 114, 115, 136, 137, 138, 144, 150, 155, 167, 200, 209, 217, 225, 227, 265, 266
Epidaurus, 22, 56, 136, 205, 248, 261
Eucharist, 131, 161, 210
Eutychus, 27, 265
Exodus
3.2, 27
3.5, 252
4.26, 176
20.12, 136
20.13, 85
20.15, 93
20.4, 26
20.9, 100
25.20-22, 166
32.12, 134
39.32, 40.33, 3.2, 135
Ezekiel
1.26, 186
16.6, 30
16.8, 32, 233
Galatians
1.2, 58
2.20, 66
3.24, 83
4.25, 58
5.14, 161
5.22, 78, 184
6.11, 58
Galilee, 50, 52, 125, 126, 140, 176, 231, 233, 261, 264, 265
Gallio, 107, 265
Gamaliel, 125, 133, 135, 264
Genesis
1.1, 74
1.27, 183, 223
2.18, 170, 188
2.24, 252
3.3, 143
12.3, 54
14.18, 83, 201
14.21, 202
17.1, 29
17.10, 27
17.12, 29
17.17, 54
17.19, 101
21.4, 31
28.12, 188
32.24, 169
32.24-29, 151
49.18, 29
Habakkuk
2.4, 86
Hebrews
2.15, 78
2.3, 192
7.3, 83
9.22, 54, 122
10.4, 76
13.10, 166
Heinrich Heine
Dichteliebe, 55
Herculaneum, 36, 163, 168
Herod, 48, 69, 148, 172, 194, 197, 264, 265
Hillel, 134, 264
Hippocrates, 22
Homer, 119
Homer - Odyssey
10.552-60, 60, 167
Homunculus, 136
Horace, 264
Hosea
3.3, 174
6.2, 174
1, 135
1.2, 140
11.1, 134
Image, 25, 48, 51, 76, 78, 122, 165, 172, 183, 192, 202, 223, 248
Isaiah
1.18, 171
1.5, 163
2.3, 197
5.20, 66
6.2, 17, 252
61.1-2a, 126
11.6, 134
21.8, 153
28.10, 17
35.6, 251
35.8, 188
40.1, 134
49.6, 95
53, 203
53.10, 134
53.5, 55
55.1, 23, 98, 255
57.18, 171
59.7-8, 59
62.1-5, 97
62.4, 171
Jacob, 31, 134, 151, 169, 249, 251
James
4.5, 23
5.16, 192
Jeremiah
3.3, 148
23.29, 224
31.33, 84
Jeroboam, 136
Jesus, 40, 55, 64, 74, 76, 77, 78, 82, 83, 85, 91, 95, 103, 104, 106, 112, 113, 114, 128, 129, 130, 131, 137, 151, 156, 159, 167, 181, 182, 189, 192, 201, 203, 210, 216, 217, 218, 220, 264
Job
1, 171
3.11, 84
19.25, 171
38.7, 196
41.1, 171
Joel
2.25, 173
John
1, 223
1.1, 75
1.14, 75
1.18, 203
1.36, 156
2, 134
2.1, 98
2.4, 131
3.16, 85
4.7-19, 115
5.24, 79, 217
6.27, 98
6.33, 76, 172
6.37, 171
6.53.56, 210
7.52, 126
9.2, 182
12.31, 167
12.47, 75
13, 216
13.23, 254
14.23, 76, 91, 200
14.8+, 171
15.26, 66
15.26,16.7ff, 65
16.13, 43, 115
16.13-15, 104
16.21, 235
16.21-22, 104
17, 223
17.21, 252
17.3, 78
18.8, 206
19.25-30, 234
19.30, 253
20, 256
20.27, 252
21.22, 251
the Elder, 138, 151
John Mark, 185, 194, 195, 197, 254
Josephus, 264
  Antiquities. Whiston 4,8.5, 195
Lamentations
1.12, 203
1.2, 195
Lechaeum, 35, 36, 156
Levi, 90, 113, 129, 137, 185, 194, 195, 197, 198, 201, 208
Leviticus
17.11, 54
23.15-21, 42
25.8, 95
Livy, 119, 264
Luke
1.37, 62
2.47, 134
12.10, 172
4.17, 126
5.39, 135
8.44, 123
16.19-31, 185
21.28, 132
23.28-31, 233
24.21, 49
Malachi
3.10-11, 202
Mark
1.39, 126
9.24, 115
10.21, 14.44, 254
13.2, 231
14.12, 231
14.24, 255
14.26, 254
14.43,52, 255
16.6-7, 256
Matthew
3.17, 137
5.14, 128
5.18, 208
5.45, 223
6.22, 106
6.6, 150
7.9, 113
11.29-30, 171
18.10, 25
18.3, 49
19.30, 159
20.26, 201
23.37, 196
24.20, 196
25.21, 66
26.26, 131
27.32, 152
27.45, 129, 131
Millard, p 114, 196
Misenum, 33
Mummius, 82, 264
Nazareth, 32, 48, 64, 70, 71, 74, 125, 126, 152, 262
Numbers
11.29, 43
16.15, 94
Ox-Herd, 196
Passover, 28, 41, 42, 196, 231, 232, 235, 254
Paul, 15, 16, 40, 55, 57, 58, 59, 65, 76, 82, 86, 90, 95, 98, 106, 107, 109, 110, 122, 129, 140, 148, 157, 193, 194, 195, 198, 202, 208, 209, 211, 218, 219, 225, 226, 227, 228, 239, 261, 262, 265
Pergamum, 22, 54
Philemon, 137
Philippians
2.6, 75
2.6-11, 202
2.8, 161
3.19, 25
Philo, 77, 108
Special Laws 1.67, 195
Plato, 119
Pliny, 17, 33, 34, 170, 207, 262, 266
Pompey, 264
Prisca, 16, 64, 90, 95, 97, 98, 106, 108, 111, 122, 129, 137, 168, 205, 206, 207, 209, 225, 228, 261, 264, 265
Proverbs
8.22-31, 223
8.30-31, 75
23.25, 30
Psalm
1.3, 49
6, 133
13, 219
142.2, 150
16, 51, 256
16.11, 201
16.9, 203
27.4,36.8,46.4,65.4, 94
30.11, 188
34.8, 200
37.4, 193
38, 219
40.6 LXX, 69, 101
42.1, 170
42.2, 23, 140
42.5, 43
43.4, 188
45.7, 197
46.5, 254
50.12, 122
51, 69
51.8, 27
65.4, 29
65.5, 29
85.10, 252
87.5, 185
91.7, 20
105.8-10, 31
118.1, 31
118.26, 28
118.27, 106
119.11, 181
119.115, 29
119.162, 165, 166, 29
122.3, 194, 223
122.6, 195
139.5-6, 216
139.12, 188
Rehoboam, 136
Revelation
3.20, 85
8.1, 165
2.10, 151
2.17, 17, 69, 200
13.8, 223
14.11, 186
Rhegium, 20, 33, 36
Romans
1.19, 130
1.4, 130
1.7, 59
3.15, 59
3.3, 86
4, 209
5.12, 77
5.8, 75
6.11, 8.11, 166
6.14, 80
6.4, 104
6.8, 250
7.12, 80
7.4, 98, 160
8.1, 247
8.13, 77
8.23, 65, 252
9.33, 252
9.4-5, 135
10.10-11, 229
10.9, 77
11.11, 210
11.32, 171
12.14, 128
13.11, 171
13.8, 16, 95
14.16, 96
16, 16
16.13, 40
16.16, 252
16.18, 25
16.22, 57
Rome, 15, 33, 40, 49, 50, 62, 63, 67, 68, 70, 71, 90, 94, 98, 108, 109, 111, 114, 119, 121, 124, 134, 137, 148, 175, 194, 195, 197, 198, 219, 225, 227, 232, 233, 239, 261, 265
Ruth
3.18, 149
Seneca, 62, 63, 119, 120, 264, 265
Solomon, 78, 136, 162, 182, 215
Song
1,2, 229
1.15, 50
1.2, 79
2, 8.6, 197
2.12, 32, 233, 236
2.15, 78
2.16+, 95
2.2, 50, 52
2.9, 17
3, 215
4.14, 131
4.7, 95
5.10-16, 24
5.14, 190
5.15, 143
5.16, 252
5.7, 191
6.3, 79
7.11-12, 71
8.1, 24
8.7, 182
Sorenos, 22, 262
Sparta, 248
Temple, 29, 31, 160, 176, 194, 231, 232
Troas, 22, 56, 80
Vesuvius, 33, 36, 170, 248, 266
Virgil, 119, 264
Zechariah
3.2, 247
14.7, 93
Zippori, 28, 48, 68, 70, 101, 126, 133, 139, 265