Judges 2 was high up on my list of half completed chapters, so I took it. Judges is not one of my favorite books. O well. Gotta do them all. Never know what you might find.
The messenger (angel) of Yahweh sounds like Yahweh in that the covenant is 'my covenant' and the commands and descriptions are in a voice that is as if from Yahweh.
I find the grammar and composition rough in the Hebrew of this section. E.g. singular and plural for noun and pronoun are not in agreement in verse 22. It's odd that the plural pronoun them should have a singular way as its antecedent. The use of forsake with respect to Joshua is odd, but I did not smooth it out or use 'left' since a different root that I gloss as left i.e. left over is used 2 verses further on. Perhaps it 'means' those nations that Joshua gave up on or failed to dispossess. And perhaps not. Perhaps Joshua as type or antetype is not meant to do a complete job in that sense. Perhaps the proving of the nation is important. Can we, in fact, remember what we were taught? Our enemies are present with us, at our sides, cheek by jowl, (whether thorns or not). Will we mature?
Bokim means Weeping. Verses 1 to 5 are bound by it, but the binding seems awkward, as if the collator was combining sources. So also the idea that the conquest of the land was incomplete and partial is repeated in chapters 1 and 2 several times, but not with any apparent structural purpose. It is 'non-literary' Hebrew so the reading in English is also even more awkward than my usual.
|וַיַּ֧עַל מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָ֛ה מִן־הַגִּלְגָּ֖ל אֶל־הַבֹּכִ֑ים |
וַיֹּאמֶר֩ אַעֲלֶ֨ה אֶתְכֶ֜ם מִמִּצְרַ֗יִם וָאָבִ֤יא אֶתְכֶם֙ אֶל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֤ר נִשְׁבַּ֙עְתִּי֙ לַאֲבֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וָאֹמַ֕ר לֹֽא־אָפֵ֧ר בְּרִיתִ֛י אִתְּכֶ֖ם לְעוֹלָֽם
|1||And the messenger of Yahweh went up from Gilgal to Bokim, |
and said, I made you go up from Egypt and I brought you to the land that I swore to your ancestors, and I said, I will not thwart my covenant with you forever.
|וְאַתֶּ֗ם לֹֽא־תִכְרְת֤וּ בְרִית֙ לְיֽוֹשְׁבֵי֙ הָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את מִזְבְּחוֹתֵיהֶ֖ם תִּתֹּצ֑וּן |
וְלֹֽא־שְׁמַעְתֶּ֥ם בְּקֹלִ֖י מַה־זֹּ֥את עֲשִׂיתֶֽם
|2||And you, you will not cut a covenant for the inhabitants of this land. Their altars you will break down. |
And you have not heard with my voice. Why have you done this?
|וְגַ֣ם אָמַ֔רְתִּי לֹֽא־אֲגָרֵ֥שׁ אוֹתָ֖ם מִפְּנֵיכֶ֑ם |
וְהָי֤וּ לָכֶם֙ לְצִדִּ֔ים וֵאלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם יִהְי֥וּ לָכֶ֖ם לְמוֹקֵֽשׁ
|3||And also I said, I will not expel them from before you, |
and they will be for you by your sides, and their gods will be for you a trap.
|וַיְהִ֗י כְּדַבֵּ֞ר מַלְאַ֤ךְ יְהוָה֙ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה אֶֽל־כָּל־בְּנֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל |
וַיִּשְׂא֥וּ הָעָ֛ם אֶת־קוֹלָ֖ם וַיִּבְכּֽוּ
|4||And it happened that when the messenger of Yahweh spoke these words to all the children of Israel, |
that the people lifted up their voice and wept.
|וַֽיִּקְרְא֛וּ שֵֽׁם־הַמָּק֥וֹם הַה֖וּא בֹּכִ֑ים |
|5||So they called the name of that place, Bokim, |
and they sacrificed there to Yahweh.
|וַיְשַׁלַּ֥ח יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ אֶת־הָעָ֑ם |
וַיֵּלְכ֧וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אִ֥ישׁ לְנַחֲלָת֖וֹ לָרֶ֥שֶׁת אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ
|6||And Joshua sent out the people, |
and the children of Israel went each to its inheritance to possess the land.
|וַיַּעַבְד֤וּ הָעָם֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֣י יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ |
וְכֹ֣ל ׀ יְמֵ֣י הַזְּקֵנִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֶאֱרִ֤יכוּ יָמִים֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י יְהוֹשׁ֔וּעַ אֲשֶׁ֣ר רָא֗וּ אֵ֣ת כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂ֤ה יְהוָה֙ הַגָּד֔וֹל אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָׂ֖ה לְיִשְׂרָאֵֽל
|7||And the people served Yahweh all the days of Joshua, |
and all the days of the elders whose days were prolonged after Joshua, who had seen every great deed of Yahweh which he did for Israel.
|וַיָּ֛מָת יְהוֹשֻׁ֥עַ בִּן־נ֖וּן עֶ֣בֶד יְהוָ֑ה |
בֶּן־מֵאָ֥ה וָעֶ֖שֶׂר שָׁנִֽים
|8||And Joshua child of Nun died, the servant of Yahweh, |
a child of a hundred and ten years.
|וַיִּקְבְּר֤וּ אוֹתוֹ֙ בִּגְב֣וּל נַחֲלָת֔וֹ בְּתִמְנַת־חֶ֖רֶס בְּהַ֣ר אֶפְרָ֑יִם |
|9||And they entombed him on the border of his inheritance in Temanat-Cheres in the hill of Ephraim, |
north of the hill of Gaash.
|וְגַם֙ כָּל־הַדּ֣וֹר הַה֔וּא נֶאֶסְפ֖וּ אֶל־אֲבוֹתָ֑יו |
וַיָּקָם֩ דּ֨וֹר אַחֵ֜ר אַחֲרֵיהֶ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹא־יָֽדְעוּ֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה וְגַם֙ אֶת־הַֽמַּעֲשֶׂ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָׂ֖ה לְיִשְׂרָאֵֽל
|10||And moreover, all that generation were gathered to their ancestors, |
and a generation arose following after them who did not know Yahweh and the deeds that he had done for Israel.
|וַיַּעֲשׂ֧וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אֶת־הָרַ֖ע בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהוָ֑ה |
|11||And the children of Israel did evil in the eyes of Yahweh, |
and they served Baalim.
|וַיַּעַזְב֞וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה ׀ אֱלֹהֵ֣י אֲבוֹתָ֗ם הַמּוֹצִ֣יא אוֹתָם֮ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַיִם֒ וַיֵּלְכ֞וּ אַחֲרֵ֣י ׀ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֗ים מֵאֱלֹהֵ֤י הָֽעַמִּים֙ אֲשֶׁר֙ סְבִיב֣וֹתֵיהֶ֔ם וַיִּֽשְׁתַּחֲו֖וּ לָהֶ֑ם |
|12||And they forsook Yahweh the God of their ancestors, who brought forth them from the land of Egypt, and they went after other gods from the gods of the peoples that were round about them, and prostrated themselves to them, |
and they grieved Yahweh.
|וַיַּעַזְב֖וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֑ה |
וַיַּעַבְד֥וּ לַבַּ֖עַל וְלָעַשְׁתָּרֽוֹת
|13||And they forsook Yahweh, |
and they served Baal and Ashtaroth.
|וַיִּֽחַר־אַ֤ף יְהוָה֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַֽיִּתְּנֵם֙ בְּיַד־שֹׁסִ֔ים וַיָּשֹׁ֖סּוּ אוֹתָ֑ם |
וַֽיִּמְכְּרֵ֞ם בְּיַ֤ד אֽוֹיְבֵיהֶם֙ מִסָּבִ֔יב וְלֹֽא־יָכְל֣וּ ע֔וֹד לַעֲמֹ֖ד לִפְנֵ֥י אוֹיְבֵיהֶֽם
|14||And the anger of Yahweh burned in Israel, and he gave them into the hand of plunderers, and they took booty from them, |
and they sold them into the hand of their surrounding enemies, and they were not able any longer to stand in the face of their enemies.
|בְּכֹ֣ל ׀ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָצְא֗וּ יַד־יְהוָה֙ הָיְתָה־בָּ֣ם לְרָעָ֔ה כַּֽאֲשֶׁר֙ דִּבֶּ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה וְכַאֲשֶׁ֛ר נִשְׁבַּ֥ע יְהוָ֖ה לָהֶ֑ם |
וַיֵּ֥צֶר לָהֶ֖ם מְאֹֽד
|15||In all that emerged, the hand of Yahweh was against them for evil, as Yahweh had spoken and as Yahweh had sworn to them, |
and there was much adversity for them.
|וַיָּ֥קֶם יְהוָ֖ה שֹֽׁפְטִ֑ים |
וַיּ֣וֹשִׁיע֔וּם מִיַּ֖ד שֹׁסֵיהֶֽם
|16||But Yahweh raised up judges, |
and they saved them from the hand of their plunderers.
|וְגַ֤ם אֶל־שֹֽׁפְטֵיהֶם֙ לֹ֣א שָׁמֵ֔עוּ כִּ֣י זָנ֗וּ אַֽחֲרֵי֙ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים וַיִּֽשְׁתַּחֲו֖וּ לָהֶ֑ם |
סָ֣רוּ מַהֵ֗ר מִן־הַדֶּ֜רֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֨ר הָלְכ֧וּ אֲבוֹתָ֛ם לִשְׁמֹ֥עַ מִצְוֺת־יְהוָ֖ה לֹא־עָ֥שׂוּ כֵֽן
|17||But even to those judging them, they would not hear, because they played the harlot after other gods, and prostrated themselves to them. |
They turned aside swiftly from the way that their ancestors walked to hear the commandment of Yahweh. They have not done so.
|וְכִֽי־הֵקִ֨ים יְהוָ֥ה ׀ לָהֶם֮ שֹֽׁפְטִים֒ וְהָיָ֤ה יְהוָה֙ עִם־הַשֹּׁפֵ֔ט וְהֽוֹשִׁיעָם֙ מִיַּ֣ד אֹֽיְבֵיהֶ֔ם כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֣י הַשּׁוֹפֵ֑ט |
כִּֽי־יִנָּחֵ֤ם יְהוָה֙ מִנַּֽאֲקָתָ֔ם מִפְּנֵ֥י לֹחֲצֵיהֶ֖ם וְדֹחֲקֵיהֶֽם
|18||But when Yahweh raised up judges for them and Yahweh was with the judge, then he saved them from the hand of their enemies all the days of the judge, |
because Yahweh sighed from their groaning in the face of those who gripped them and jostled them.
|וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בְּמ֣וֹת הַשּׁוֹפֵ֗ט יָשֻׁ֙בוּ֙ וְהִשְׁחִ֣יתוּ מֵֽאֲבוֹתָ֔ם לָלֶ֗כֶת אַֽחֲרֵי֙ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים לְעָבְדָ֖ם וּלְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺ֣ת לָהֶ֑ם |
לֹ֤א הִפִּ֙ילוּ֙ מִמַּ֣עַלְלֵיהֶ֔ם וּמִדַּרְכָּ֖ם הַקָּשָֽׁה
|19||And it happened when the judge had died, they turned and impaired themselves more than their ancestors, by walking after other gods to serve them and to prostrate themselves to them. |
They did not fall from their practices and from their intransigent way.
|וַיִּֽחַר־אַ֥ף יְהוָ֖ה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל |
וַיֹּ֗אמֶר יַעַן֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָבְר֜וּ הַגּ֣וֹי הַזֶּ֗ה אֶת־בְּרִיתִי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּ֣יתִי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָ֔ם וְלֹ֥א שָׁמְע֖וּ לְקוֹלִֽי
|20||And the anger of Yahweh burned in Israel, |
and he said, In that this nation goes beyond my covenant that I commanded their ancestors, and they do not hear my voice,
|גַּם־אֲנִי֙ לֹ֣א אוֹסִ֔יף לְהוֹרִ֥ישׁ אִ֖ישׁ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֑ם |
מִן־הַגּוֹיִ֛ם אֲשֶׁר־עָזַ֥ב יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ וַיָּמֹֽת
|21||Also I will not again myself dispossess anyone before them, |
from the nations whom Joshua had forsaken when he died,
|לְמַ֛עַן נַסּ֥וֹת בָּ֖ם אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל |
הֲשֹׁמְרִ֣ים הֵם֩ אֶת־דֶּ֨רֶךְ יְהוָ֜ה לָלֶ֣כֶת בָּ֗ם כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר שָׁמְר֥וּ אֲבוֹתָ֖ם אִם־לֹֽא
|22||So that Israel may be proven with them. |
Will they keep the way of Yahweh to walk in them as their ancestors kept or not?
|וַיַּנַּ֤ח יְהוָה֙ אֶת־הַגּוֹיִ֣ם הָאֵ֔לֶּה לְבִלְתִּ֥י הוֹרִישָׁ֖ם מַהֵ֑ר |
וְלֹ֥א נְתָנָ֖ם בְּיַד־יְהוֹשֻֽׁעַ
|23||And Yahweh left those nations without dispossessing them swiftly, |
and he did not give them into the hand of Joshua.