Friday, November 24, 2017

Joshua 16

More on the borders. Interesting that forced labour exists here between different classes of people. Plus ça change.
Joshua 16 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיֵּצֵ֨א הַגּוֹרָ֜ל לִבְנֵ֤י יוֹסֵף֙ מִיַּרְדֵּ֣ן יְרִיח֔וֹ לְמֵ֥י יְרִיח֖וֹ מִזְרָ֑חָה
הַמִּדְבָּ֗ר עֹלֶ֧ה מִירִיח֛וֹ בָּהָ֖ר בֵּֽית־אֵֽל
1 And the lot came out for the children of Joseph from Jordan by Jericho to the waters of Jericho toward the sunrise,
the wilderness going up from Jericho on the hill of Bethel.
3c 4C 24
12
וְיָצָ֥א מִבֵּֽית־אֵ֖ל ל֑וּזָה
וְעָבַ֛ר אֶל־גְּב֥וּל הָאַרְכִּ֖י עֲטָרֽוֹת
2 And came out from Bethel toward Luz,
and it passed through to the border of the Arkite Crowns.
3d 4A 8
12
וְיָֽרַד־יָ֜מָּה אֶל־גְּב֣וּל הַיַּפְלֵטִ֗י עַ֣ד גְּב֧וּל בֵּית־חוֹרֹ֛ן תַּחְתּ֖וֹן וְעַד־גָּ֑זֶר
וְהָי֥וּ תֹצְאֹתָ֖יו יָֽמָּה
3 And it descended seaward to the border of the Yaphleti to the border of BethHoron the lower part, and to Gezer,
and its exeunts seaward.
3c 4B 24
8
וַיִּנְחֲל֥וּ בְנֵי־יוֹסֵ֖ף מְנַשֶּׁ֥ה וְאֶפְרָֽיִם 4 So the children of Joseph, Manasseh and Ephraim, were given to inherit. 3e 3g 14
וַיְהִ֛י גְּב֥וּל בְּנֵֽי־אֶפְרַ֖יִם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָ֑ם
וַיְהִ֞י גְּב֤וּל נַחֲלָתָם֙ מִזְרָ֔חָה עַטְר֣וֹת אַדָּ֔ר עַד־בֵּ֥ית חוֹרֹ֖ן עֶלְיֽוֹן
5 And it was the border of the children of Ephraim in their families.
And it was the border of their inheritance toward the sunrise to the Crown of Excellence to BethHoron, the upper part.
3d 4C 13
21
וְיָצָ֨א הַגְּב֜וּל הַיָּ֗מָּה הַֽמִּכְמְתָת֙ מִצָּפ֔וֹן וְנָסַ֧ב הַגְּב֛וּל מִזְרָ֖חָה תַּאֲנַ֣ת שִׁלֹ֑ה
וְעָבַ֣ר אוֹת֔וֹ מִמִּזְרַ֖ח יָנֽוֹחָה
6 And the border came out toward the sea to the Mikmethah from the north and circled the border toward the sunrise to the fig tree of Shiloh,
and it passed through it from the sunrise toward Janoxah.
3c 4B 28
11
וְיָרַ֥ד מִיָּנ֖וֹחָה עֲטָר֣וֹת וְנַעֲרָ֑תָה
וּפָגַע֙ בִּֽירִיח֔וֹ וְיָצָ֖א הַיַּרְדֵּֽן
7 And it descended from Janoxah to the Crowns and Naarath,
and butted by Jericho and came out at the Jordan.
3e 4B 15
12
מִתַּפּ֜וּחַ יֵלֵ֨ךְ הַגְּב֥וּל יָ֙מָּה֙ נַ֣חַל קָנָ֔ה וְהָי֥וּ תֹצְאֹתָ֖יו הַיָּ֑מָּה
זֹ֗את נַחֲלַ֛ת מַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵי־אֶפְרַ֖יִם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָֽם
8 From Tapuach the border seaward went down to the wadi of Qenah, and its exeunts were toward the sea.
This is the inheritance of the branch of the children of Ephraim in their families.
3d 4B 23
15
וְהֶעָרִ֗ים הַמִּבְדָּלוֹת֙ לִבְנֵ֣י אֶפְרַ֔יִם בְּת֖וֹךְ נַחֲלַ֣ת בְּנֵֽי־מְנַשֶּׁ֑ה
כָּֽל־הֶעָרִ֖ים וְחַצְרֵיהֶֽן
9 And the cities differentiated for the children of Ephraim were in the midst of the inheritance of the children of Manasseh,
all the cities and their villages.
3e 4B 22
8
וְלֹ֣א הוֹרִ֔ישׁוּ אֶת־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֖י הַיּוֹשֵׁ֣ב בְּגָ֑זֶר
וַיֵּ֨שֶׁב הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֜י בְּקֶ֤רֶב אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ עַד־הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֔ה וַיְהִ֖י לְמַס־עֹבֵֽד
10 And they did not dispossess the Canaanite that was settled in Gezer,
but the Canaanite has settled within Ephraim to this day, and he was serving in forced service.
3e 4C 16
23

Thursday, November 23, 2017

1 Chronicles 20

A short chapter, sure, but it raises questions about the language that point to where I hope to see when I am finished. In part I am reading for language usage. I began because of the use of the Psalms in the Epistle to the Hebrews. I wanted to hear how Jesus heard after the manner in which the son's life and work was described in that Epistle. If we are invited to know something of mystery, and language is certainly a mystery, then we have to realize that we do not know it to begin with. Certainly it would be good if we were well taught. But even good teaching must be questioned to avoid the biases of the past.

I am wondering if a word family will emerge from גרר, a stem that seems to give rise to a number of differing concepts that may be related through sound. This may be a small enough group to see the pattern develop. BDB collects these together. My Hebrew Latin concordance equally treats מגרה as related to the gullet word, as if a saw and other cutting tools sound like the rasping of the jawbone. There seems little doubt that there are some other word-sound families that can be identified.

Does this / have I achieved what I thought I set out to achieve in 2006? (I think I should have started sooner, but there were distractions like family, work, and other obsessions.) It may not be that important in the long run. One is known rather than knowing. Knowledge can be a trap.

But this short snippet of a story, if largely ignored in the vast theological scheme of things, is still important for what it reveals about language usage.

The giants, the Raphaim must have been healers. I must find out why I have two streams of them and why I rejected giant as a gloss. I have a set called Shades and the other set called titans (no caps). And I haven't done Genesis 24 yet (though I was working there recently). This will be resolved eventually - but there must have been a reason? Perhaps it is because I started with Psalm 88.11 - so long ago

For the dead will you do wonders?
If the shades arise, will they give you thanks? Selah.

It raises questions about the puzzle as a whole when one adjusts pieces that one has already placed. Perhaps I have been influenced (by one greater than David) with a jigsaw.

But verse 4b here will give readers a tongue twister.

Only 300 more chapters to go.

1 Chronicles 20 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְהִ֡י לְעֵת֩ תְּשׁוּבַ֨ת הַשָּׁנָ֜ה לְעֵ֣ת ׀ צֵ֣את הַמְּלָכִ֗ים וַיִּנְהַ֣ג יוֹאָב֩ אֶת־חֵ֨יל הַצָּבָ֜א וַיַּשְׁחֵ֣ת ׀ אֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ בְּנֵֽי־עַמּ֗וֹן וַיָּבֹא֙ וַיָּ֣צַר אֶת־רַבָּ֔ה וְדָוִ֖יד יֹשֵׁ֣ב בִּירֽוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
וַיַּ֥ךְ יוֹאָ֛ב אֶת־רַבָּ֖ה וַיֶּֽהֶרְסֶֽהָ
1 And it was the time of the turning of the year, at the time the kings go forth, and Joab led the force of the host and destroyed the land of the children of Ammon, and came and besieged Rabbah, and David sat in Jerusalem.
And Joab struck Rabbah and overthrew it.
3d 4B 53
12
וַיִּקַּ֣ח דָּוִ֣יד אֶת־עֲטֶֽרֶת־מַלְכָּם֩ מֵעַ֨ל רֹאשׁ֜וֹ וַֽיִּמְצָאָ֣הּ ׀ מִשְׁקַ֣ל כִּכַּר־זָהָ֗ב וּבָהּ֙ אֶ֣בֶן יְקָרָ֔ה וַתְּהִ֖י עַל־רֹ֣אשׁ דָּוִ֑יד
וּשְׁלַ֥ל הָעִ֛יר הוֹצִ֖יא הַרְבֵּ֥ה מְאֹֽד
2 And David took the crown of their king from his head and found it weighed a talent of gold, and in it was a precious stone and there it was on the head of David.
And the spoil of the city he brought out was very abundant.
3d 4B 38
10
וְאֶת־הָעָ֨ם אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֜הּ הוֹצִ֗יא וַיָּ֨שַׂר בַּמְּגֵרָ֜ה וּבַחֲרִיצֵ֤י הַבַּרְזֶל֙ וּבַמְּגֵר֔וֹת וְכֵן֙ יַעֲשֶׂ֣ה דָוִ֔יד לְכֹ֖ל עָרֵ֣י בְנֵי־עַמּ֑וֹן
וַיָּ֧שָׁב דָּוִ֛יד וְכָל־הָעָ֖ם יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם
3 And the people that were in it he brought out, influencing them to work with the saw and with the sharp flails of iron and with cutting tools, and so did David to all the cities of the children of Ammon.
And David and all the people returned to Jerusalem.
3c 4C 41
13
וַיְהִי֙ אַחֲרֵיכֵ֔ן וַתַּעֲמֹ֧ד מִלְחָמָ֛ה בְּגֶ֖זֶר עִם־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים
אָ֣ז הִכָּ֞ה סִבְּכַ֣י הַחֻֽשָׁתִ֗י אֶת־סִפַּ֛י מִילִדֵ֥י הָרְפָאִ֖ים וַיִּכָּנֵֽעוּ
4 And it was after this that war stood at Gezer with the Philistines.
Then Thicket the Xushty struck Threshold, from the successions of the titans, and they were brought to heel.
3c 4B 20
23
וַתְּהִי־ע֥וֹד מִלְחָמָ֖ה אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֑ים
וַיַּ֞ךְ אֶלְחָנָ֣ן בֶּן־יָעִ֗יר אֶת־לַחְמִי֙ אֲחִי֙ גָּלְיָ֣ת הַגִּתִּ֔י וְעֵ֣ץ חֲנִית֔וֹ כִּמְנ֖וֹר אֹרְגִֽים
5 Then there was more war with the Philistines,
and Elxanan child of Yair struck Lachmi, the brother of Goliath the Gittite, and the timber of his spear was like a weaver's beam.
3e 4B 10
27
וַתְּהִי־ע֥וֹד מִלְחָמָ֖ה בְּגַ֑ת
וַיְהִ֣י ׀ אִ֣ישׁ מִדָּ֗ה וְאֶצְבְּעֹתָ֤יו שֵׁשׁ־וָשֵׁשׁ֙ עֶשְׂרִ֣ים וְאַרְבַּ֔ע וְגַם־ה֖וּא נוֹלַ֥ד לְהָרָפָֽא
6 Then there was more war in Gath.
And there was a man of measure and his fingers were six and six, twenty four, and moreover he was born of a titan.
3e 4C 8
27
וַיְחָרֵ֖ף אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיַּכֵּ֙הוּ֙ יְה֣וֹנָתָ֔ן בֶּן־שִׁמְעָ֖א אֲחִ֥י דָוִֽיד
7 And he reproached Israel.
And Jonathan child of Shimea, the brother of David, struck him.
3e 4B 7
15
אֵ֛ל נוּלְּד֥וּ לְהָרָפָ֖א בְּגַ֑ת
וַיִּפְּל֥וּ בְיַד־דָּוִ֖יד וּבְיַד־עֲבָדָֽיו
8 d These were born to the titan in Gath,
and they fell by the hand of David, and by the hand of his servants.
3d 4A 9
12

Wednesday, November 22, 2017

Leviticus 12

The cleansing after a birth.
Leviticus 12 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר 1 And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, 3e 3g 10
דַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אִשָּׁה֙ כִּ֣י תַזְרִ֔יעַ וְיָלְדָ֖ה זָכָ֑ר
וְטָֽמְאָה֙ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִ֔ים כִּימֵ֛י נִדַּ֥ת דְּוֺתָ֖הּ תִּטְמָֽא
2 Speak to the children of Israel, saying, A woman that has been seeded and she gives birth to a male,
then is unclean seven days. As the days of the segregation of her infirmity, she will be unclean.
3d 4C 21
16
וּבַיּ֖וֹם הַשְּׁמִינִ֑י
יִמּ֖וֹל בְּשַׂ֥ר עָרְלָתֽוֹ
3 And on the eighth day,
the flesh of his foreskin will be circumcised.
3e 4A 6
7
וּשְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים יוֹם֙ וּשְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֔ים תֵּשֵׁ֖ב בִּדְמֵ֣י טָהֳרָ֑ה
בְּכָל־קֹ֣דֶשׁ לֹֽא־תִגָּ֗ע וְאֶל־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ֙ לֹ֣א תָבֹ֔א עַד־מְלֹ֖את יְמֵ֥י טָהֳרָֽהּ
4 And thirty three days she will be situated in the blood of her cleansing.
Anything holy she will not touch, and to the sanctuary she will not come, until the days are fulfilled of her cleansing.
3e 4B 16
22
וְאִם־נְקֵבָ֣ה תֵלֵ֔ד וְטָמְאָ֥ה שְׁבֻעַ֖יִם כְּנִדָּתָ֑הּ
וְשִׁשִּׁ֥ים יוֹם֙ וְשֵׁ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֔ים תֵּשֵׁ֖ב עַל־דְּמֵ֥י טָהֳרָֽה
5 And if she gives birth to a female, then she will be unclean two weeks, as her segregation.
Sixty six days she will be situated on the blood of her cleansing.
3e 4B 17
17
וּבִמְלֹ֣את ׀ יְמֵ֣י טָהֳרָ֗הּ לְבֵן֮ א֣וֹ לְבַת֒ תָּבִ֞יא כֶּ֤בֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ֙ לְעֹלָ֔ה וּבֶן־יוֹנָ֥ה אוֹ־תֹ֖ר לְחַטָּ֑את
אֶל־פֶּ֥תַח אֹֽהֶל־מוֹעֵ֖ד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵֽן
6 And when the days of her cleansing are fulfilled for a son or for a daughter, she will bring a young he-yearling lamb for a burnt offering, and the squab of a dove or a turtledove for a sin offering,
to the door of the tent of engagement to the priest.
3e 4C 33
11
וְהִקְרִיב֞וֹ לִפְנֵ֤י יְהוָה֙ וְכִפֶּ֣ר עָלֶ֔יהָ וְטָהֲרָ֖ה מִמְּקֹ֣ר דָּמֶ֑יהָ
זֹ֤את תּוֹרַת֙ הַיֹּלֶ֔דֶת לַזָּכָ֖ר א֥וֹ לַנְּקֵבָֽה
7 He will bring it near before Yahweh, and make a cover-price for her, and she will be cleansed from the fountain of her blood.
This is the instruction for her who gives birth to a male or to a female.
3e 4C 23
14
וְאִם־לֹ֨א תִמְצָ֣א יָדָהּ֮ דֵּ֣י שֶׂה֒ וְלָקְחָ֣ה שְׁתֵּֽי־תֹרִ֗ים א֤וֹ שְׁנֵי֙ בְּנֵ֣י יוֹנָ֔ה אֶחָ֥ד לְעֹלָ֖ה וְאֶחָ֣ד לְחַטָּ֑את
וְכִפֶּ֥ר עָלֶ֛יהָ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן וְטָהֵֽרָה
8 And if she does not find in her hand enough for a lamb, then she will take two turtledoves or two squabs of a dove, one for a burnt offering and one for a sin offering,
and the priest will make a cover-price for her, and she will be clean.
3d 4C 33
13

Back to reading

I have spent the last 5 days buried in analysis of English glosses. I managed to get them more or less into lemma form. The number of exceptions ending in 'er' is somewhere around 250. The two letter combos that demand a silent e are about 45 and there are about 25 exceptions there too. I changed 111 verses but only read a few of Leviticus 19 that were new. Maybe over the next few days I can restart reading and stop programming.

The algorithm for preventing me from duplicating English glosses over multiple Hebrew stems is much stronger since both are now in lemma form. Note that I have reduced most of the Hebrew stems to the main stem from which they are derived. I will be able to separate them by word form if needed. But it seemed very confusing to me to read a dictionary with all those sub or derived forms in it.

I could do with a complete redesign of my database but that would change all my forms and would probably take me several months to do properly. Some day maybe...

I think I will begin with a few short chapters. Leviticus 12, 1 Chronicles 20, and Joshua 16. Then I will go back to the longer ones.

I find myself also in the act of reducing unnecessary synonyms. Where there's no need for a variety of glosses for a stem, why have them?


Sunday, November 19, 2017

Deriving a lemma for an English gloss

One tends to take one's own tongue for granted. The last three days I have been running some tests improving my very ad hoc algorithms to try to discover where I am breaking my rules. Essentially this is a move from gloss to lemma, the form you would find in a dictionary.

I thought at first I would need an English dictionary app, but it turns out a few simple rules will take a gloss and uncover its lemma form. I have uncovered about 200 stems that I need to investigate one at a time to see why I have an overlap in my translations that I had not already known and explicitly allowed.

My explicit allowance rules are:
I can reuse a gloss with a different Hebrew stem for these reasons.
  • literary effect, like use in an acrostic, or English idiom that I want to reflect in the reading.
  • stems that are so general, come, go, bring, set, put, that distinguishing them is well nigh impossible. In each of these cases, there is generally a most frequently used gloss.
  • stems that are in both Aramaic and Hebrew.
  • Homonyms of course.
  • places where there seemed no other choice. There are quite a few of these.
My strategy has been to run an algorithm that counts the 'main' word in an English phrase and the number of Hebrew stems that are used for that English string. It has been pretty accurate. To find the main word, I remove some helping verbs, most prepositions, some modifiers and then count the number of Hebrew stems used with the result.

This strategy misses some overlaps: e.g. As would be expected, I use brass with נחשׁ. That was fine and I had not used brass with any other Hebrew stem, but I missed that I had used brasses in Zechariah 14:20 for צלל, a word with the tinkling sound of the cymbals. This is an example I do not want to leave in place. But what is the technical term for the place on the horse where the word would be written? I am keeping my eye out for this, but in the meanwhile I added the adjective tinkling to indicate the noise factor implied in the Hebrew.

Now I can derive the singular from the plural, restore silent e's when removing parsed components like ed and ing. And allow exceptions. The English analysis has been much easier than the Hebrew root algorithm I wrote as a bootstrap to my Hebrew dictionary (and now like other bootstraps, no longer in use.). 

For the first 200,000 words of the Bible, I now have a full Hebrew stem, English lemma mapping. I know how many lemmas occur for a stem and how many stems occur for a lemma so I can check out the ones I have missed.

This is a summary of the steps in the algorithm. 
  1. as before, remove various components from the English phrase for the Hebrew word, general terms, articles, interjections, vocative, negatives, demonstrative pronouns, common modifiers, prepositions, helping verbs,  possessive, relative and reflexive pronouns, conjunctions.
  2. I leave in a few pronouns that are used to distinguish some significant verbs and nouns. There is some subjectivity in this decision. E.g. ascend is also go up, descend is also go down. These two verbs, however, are also a part of the generic issue noted above where I have largely abandoned my rules.
  3. I remove some additional helping verbs. I have these in two groups since some helping verbs are also used stand alone, like do or make.
  4. Then I apply a series of rules - remarkably simple given the irregularity of English.
There are five lists of exceptions to the rules: words that must end in 'ly' like comply, words that must end in 's' like debris, words that must end in 'ing', like sling, words that must end in 'at', words ending in 'ite' that must have a silent e. 

There is one list of the last two letters of any word that demand a silent e on the lemma. This list is nc:dg:bl:at:as:iz:ut:su:ls:rg:rs:ev:ir:ur:av:dy:ud:us: (and a few more) but with the exceptions noted above.

Given these exceptions, the algorithm removes adverbial endings, ly, ily, ingly, ably, participle endings,  ied, ed, ing, and plurals, ches, shes, sses, ies, s, except for words that end in s like debris. It also removes doubling of the final letter before one of these endings and restores the silent e where needed. There are exceptions to the silent e rule that have to be noted.

Re comparatives, more words than not in the English that I have used ending in er and est are not comparatives. Some of the functional 'er' words should be noted. And I see some compromised words ending in est: e,g, highest (a name for God, but not related to high, רום). So I will be adding these to the algorithm. One can't remove est from words that require it, like guest, arrest or harvest. The 'er' words are frequent and appear to be of several different classes of word: comparative (better), functional (farmer), and maybe others that are neither. Good thing I didn't start with 'er'. I might have got discouraged. But I did get to it. See the next post.

I think the algorithm is over 90% successful (99% after dealing with er but I still don't strip ion or ess endings). I am still experimenting. I am also investigating one by one the rule violations I have discovered with this refinement. There are about 8500 English lemma forms in the 200,000 or so words done or guessed so far. These are used with about 3000 Hebrew lemma forms (stem). 200 new exceptions will go by quickly [wrong - see next post!] since some of them are prepositions that I ignore anyway for reasons I have explained before.

    Wednesday, November 15, 2017

    Ezekiel 12

    You know, there are times when I don't know if this exercise in reading is useful. It is hard to read with such rigidity. But - rigidity can be softened I suppose when the strict task is done. Here in verse 14, JB has an unsheathed sword following the exiles. I have already seen unsheathed sword with the verb פתח, open. So I have stuck with my do away with gloss for the verb that is used, ריק, also empty. Meaning I suppose, that the sword that could have defended them is not available. The exiles are vulnerable, and without any defense.

    As such, we continue...

    Ezekiel 12 Fn Min Max Syll
    וַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר 1 And the word of Yahweh happened to me, saying, 3e 3g 10
    בֶּן־אָדָ֕ם בְּת֥וֹךְ בֵּית־הַמֶּ֖רִי אַתָּ֣ה יֹשֵׁ֑ב
    אֲשֶׁ֣ר עֵינַיִם֩ לָהֶ֨ם לִרְא֜וֹת וְלֹ֣א רָא֗וּ אָזְנַ֨יִם לָהֶ֤ם לִשְׁמֹ֙עַ֙ וְלֹ֣א שָׁמֵ֔עוּ כִּ֛י בֵּ֥ית מְרִ֖י הֵֽם
    2 Child of humanity, in the midst of the house of provocation you are sitting,
    who have eyes to see and do not see. Ears they have to hear but they do not hear, for a house of provocation they are.
    3d 4C 13
    29
    וְאַתָּ֣ה בֶן־אָדָ֗ם עֲשֵׂ֤ה לְךָ֙ כְּלֵ֣י גוֹלָ֔ה וּגְלֵ֥ה יוֹמָ֖ם לְעֵֽינֵיהֶ֑ם
    וְגָלִ֨יתָ מִמְּקוֹמְךָ֜ אֶל־מָק֤וֹם אַחֵר֙ לְעֵ֣ינֵיהֶ֔ם אוּלַ֣י יִרְא֔וּ כִּ֛י בֵּ֥ית מְרִ֖י הֵֽמָּה
    3 And you, child of humanity, construct for yourself instruments of exile, and go into exile by day for their eyes,
    and exile yourself from your place to another place for their eyes. Maybe they will see that they are a house of provocation.
    3d 4C 22
    26
    וְהוֹצֵאתָ֨ כֵלֶ֜יךָ כִּכְלֵ֥י גוֹלָ֛ה יוֹמָ֖ם לְעֵֽינֵיהֶ֑ם
    וְאַתָּ֗ה תֵּצֵ֤א בָעֶ֙רֶב֙ לְעֵ֣ינֵיהֶ֔ם כְּמוֹצָאֵ֖י גּוֹלָֽה
    4 And you will bring forth your instruments as instruments of exile by day for their eyes,
    and you yourself will go forth in the evening for their eyes as one going forth into exile.
    3d 4C 17
    18
    לְעֵינֵיהֶ֖ם חֲתָר־לְךָ֣ בַקִּ֑יר
    וְהוֹצֵאתָ֖ בּֽוֹ
    5 For their eyes, dig hard for yourself in the house wall,
    and come forth through it.
    3e 4B 10
    5
    לְעֵ֨ינֵיהֶ֜ם עַל־כָּתֵ֤ף תִּשָּׂא֙ בָּעֲלָטָ֣ה תוֹצִ֔יא פָּנֶ֣יךָ תְכַסֶּ֔ה וְלֹ֥א תִרְאֶ֖ה אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ
    כִּֽי־מוֹפֵ֥ת נְתַתִּ֖יךָ לְבֵ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
    6 For their eyes, you will bear on a shoulder. In the dusk come out. Cover your face that you do not see the land,
    for I have given you as a portent for the house of Israel.
    3e 4C 29
    11
    וָאַ֣עַשׂ כֵּן֮ כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר צֻוֵּיתִי֒ כֵּ֠לַי הוֹצֵ֜אתִי כִּכְלֵ֤י גוֹלָה֙ יוֹמָ֔ם וּבָעֶ֛רֶב חָתַֽרְתִּי־לִ֥י בַקִּ֖יר בְּיָ֑ד
    בָּעֲלָטָ֥ה הוֹצֵ֛אתִי עַל־כָּתֵ֥ף נָשָׂ֖אתִי לְעֵינֵיהֶֽם
    7 And I did so, as I was commanded. My instruments I brought out as instruments of exile by day and in the evening. I dug hard myself in the house wall by hand.
    In the dusk I brought out on the shoulder. I lifted up for their eyes.
    3d 4C 33
    17
    וַיְהִ֧י דְבַר־יְהוָ֛ה אֵלַ֖י בַּבֹּ֥קֶר לֵאמֹֽר 8 And the word of Yahweh happened to me in the morning, saying, 3c 3g 13
    בֶּן־אָדָ֕ם הֲלֹ֨א אָמְר֥וּ אֵלֶ֛יךָ בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בֵּ֣ית הַמֶּ֑רִי
    מָ֖ה אַתָּ֥ה עֹשֶֽׂה
    9 Child of humanity, have not the house of Israel said to you, the house of provocation,
    What are you doing?
    3d 4B 18
    5
    אֱמֹ֣ר אֲלֵיהֶ֔ם כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהֹוִ֑ה
    הַנָּשִׂ֞יא הַמַּשָּׂ֤א הַזֶּה֙ בִּיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם וְכָל־בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל אֲשֶׁר־הֵ֥מָּה בְתוֹכָֽם
    10 Says to them, Thus says my Lord Yahweh,
    This load is for the principal in Jerusalem, and all the house of Israel that themselves are among them.
    3e 4C 14
    25
    אֱמֹ֖ר אֲנִ֣י מֽוֹפֶתְכֶ֑ם
    כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשִׂ֗יתִי כֵּ֚ן יֵעָשֶׂ֣ה לָהֶ֔ם בַּגּוֹלָ֥ה בַשְּׁבִ֖י יֵלֵֽכוּ
    11 Say, I am a portent.
    As I have done so will be done to them. Into exile, into captivity they will go.
    3e 4C 7
    20
    וְהַנָּשִׂ֨יא אֲשֶׁר־בְּתוֹכָ֜ם אֶל־כָּתֵ֤ף יִשָּׂא֙ בָּעֲלָטָ֣ה וְיֵצֵ֔א בַּקִּ֥יר יַחְתְּר֖וּ לְה֣וֹצִיא ב֑וֹ
    פָּנָ֣יו יְכַסֶּ֔ה יַ֗עַן אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹא־יִרְאֶ֥ה לַעַ֛יִן ה֖וּא אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ
    12 And the principal that is among them, will bear on a shoulder in the dusk, and will go forth. In the house wall they will dig hard to bring forth through it.
    His face he will cover so that he will not see before his eyes himself with the land.
    3d 4C 30
    19
    וּפָרַשְׂתִּ֤י אֶת־רִשְׁתִּי֙ עָלָ֔יו וְנִתְפַּ֖שׂ בִּמְצֽוּדָתִ֑י
    וְהֵבֵאתִ֨י אֹת֤וֹ בָבֶ֙לָה֙ אֶ֣רֶץ כַּשְׂדִּ֔ים וְאוֹתָ֥הּ לֹֽא־יִרְאֶ֖ה וְשָׁ֥ם יָמֽוּת
    13 And I will spread my net over him, and he will be taken hold of in my hunt,
    and I will bring him toward Babel to the land of the Chaldeans, but her he will not see, and there he will die.
    3e 4C 16
    23
    וְכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר סְבִיבֹתָ֥יו עֶזְר֛וֹ וְכָל־אֲגַפָּ֖יו אֱזָרֶ֣ה לְכָל־ר֑וּחַ
    וְחֶ֖רֶב אָרִ֥יק אַחֲרֵיהֶֽם
    14 And all that are round about him, his help and all his legions, I will sift to every wind,
    and sword I will do away with in their aftermath.
    3d 4B 22
    9
    וְיָדְע֖וּ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֣י יְהוָ֑ה
    בַּהֲפִיצִ֤י אוֹתָם֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֔ם וְזֵרִיתִ֥י אוֹתָ֖ם בָּאֲרָצֽוֹת
    15 And they will know that I am Yahweh,
    when I disperse them among the nations, and I will sift them among the lands.
    3e 4C 7
    19
    וְהוֹתַרְתִּ֤י מֵהֶם֙ אַנְשֵׁ֣י מִסְפָּ֔ר מֵחֶ֖רֶב מֵרָעָ֣ב וּמִדָּ֑בֶר
    לְמַ֨עַן יְסַפְּר֜וּ אֶת־כָּל־תּוֹעֲבֽוֹתֵיהֶ֗ם בַּגּוֹיִם֙ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֣אוּ שָׁ֔ם וְיָדְע֖וּ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
    16 But I will let remain from them, soldiers based on the count from sword, from famine, and from pestilence,
    so that they may recount all their abominations among the nations where they come. And they will know that I am Yahweh.
    3e 4C 20
    28
    וַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר 17 And the word of Yahweh happened to me, saying, 3e 3g 10
    בֶּן־אָדָ֕ם לַחְמְךָ֖ בְּרַ֣עַשׁ תֹּאכֵ֑ל
    וּמֵימֶ֕יךָ בְּרָגְזָ֥ה וּבִדְאָגָ֖ה תִּשְׁתֶּֽה
    18 Child of humanity, your bread with quaking, eat,
    and your water with shuddering and anxiety, imbibe.
    3e 4B 11
    13
    וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֶל־עַ֣ם הָאָ֡רֶץ כֹּֽה־אָמַר֩ אֲדֹנָ֨י יְהוִ֜ה לְיוֹשְׁבֵ֤י יְרוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ אֶל־אַדְמַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לַחְמָם֙ בִּדְאָגָ֣ה יֹאכֵ֔לוּ וּמֵֽימֵיהֶ֖ם בְּשִׁמָּמ֣וֹן יִשְׁתּ֑וּ
    לְמַ֜עַן תֵּשַׁ֤ם אַרְצָהּ֙ מִמְּלֹאָ֔הּ מֵחֲמַ֖ס כָּֽל־הַיֹּשְׁבִ֥ים בָּֽהּ
    19 Then you will say to the people of the land, Thus says my Lord Yahweh to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, to the ground of Israel, Their bread with anxiety they will eat, and their water with desolation they will imbibe,
    so that her land will be desolate and its fullness from the violence of all those inhabiting her.
    3e 4C 48
    18
    וְהֶעָרִ֤ים הַנּֽוֹשָׁבוֹת֙ תֶּחֱרַ֔בְנָה וְהָאָ֖רֶץ שְׁמָמָ֣ה תִֽהְיֶ֑ה
    וִֽידַעְתֶּ֖ם כִּֽי־אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
    20 And the cities that are inhabited will be deserted, and the land will be desolate,
    and you will know that I am Yahweh.
    3e 4C 21
    7
    וַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר 21 And the word of Yahweh happened to me, saying, 3e 3g 10
    בֶּן־אָדָ֗ם מָֽה־הַמָּשָׁ֤ל הַזֶּה֙ לָכֶ֔ם עַל־אַדְמַ֥ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר
    יַֽאַרְכוּ֙ הַיָּמִ֔ים וְאָבַ֖ד כָּל־חָזֽוֹן
    22 Child of humanity, what is this proverb that you have on the ground of Israel, saying,
    The days are prolonged and every vision perishes.
    3e 4C 19
    12
    לָכֵ֞ן אֱמֹ֣ר אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם כֹּֽה־אָמַר֮ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִה֒ הִשְׁבַּ֙תִּי֙ אֶת־הַמָּשָׁ֣ל הַזֶּ֔ה וְלֹֽא־יִמְשְׁל֥וּ אֹת֛וֹ ע֖וֹד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
    כִּ֚י אִם־דַּבֵּ֣ר אֲלֵיהֶ֔ם קָֽרְבוּ֙ הַיָּמִ֔ים וּדְבַ֖ר כָּל־חָזֽוֹן
    23 Therefore say to them, Thus says my Lord Yahweh, I have made this proverb to cease, and no longer is it proverbial in Israel,
    but speak to them, The days are brought near for the word of every vision.
    3d 4C 36
    17
    כִּ֠י לֹ֣א יִֽהְיֶ֥ה ע֛וֹד כָּל־חֲז֥וֹן שָׁ֖וְא וּמִקְסַ֣ם חָלָ֑ק
    בְּת֖וֹךְ בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
    24 ~ That there will be no more any vain vision or smooth soothsaying,
    in the midst of the house of Israel.
    3d 4B 14
    6
    כִּ֣י ׀ אֲנִ֣י יְהוָ֗ה אֲדַבֵּר֙ אֵת֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֲדַבֵּ֤ר דָּבָר֙ וְיֵ֣עָשֶׂ֔ה לֹ֥א תִמָּשֵׁ֖ךְ ע֑וֹד
    כִּ֣י בִֽימֵיכֶ֞ם בֵּ֣ית הַמֶּ֗רִי אֲדַבֵּ֤ר דָּבָר֙ וַעֲשִׂיתִ֔יו נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִֽה
    25 B For I am Yahweh. I will speak what I will speak, a word that will be done, not drawn out any more.
    For in your days, O house of provocation, I will speak a word and I will do it, an oracle of my Lord Yahweh.
    3e 4C 25
    24
    וַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר 26 And the word of Yahweh happened to me, saying, 3e 3g 10
    בֶּן־אָדָ֗ם הִנֵּ֤ה בֵֽית־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֹֽמְרִ֔ים הֶחָז֛וֹן אֲשֶׁר־ה֥וּא חֹזֶ֖ה לְיָמִ֣ים רַבִּ֑ים
    וּלְעִתִּ֥ים רְחוֹק֖וֹת ה֥וּא נִבָּֽא
    27 Child of humanity, behold, the house of Israel, they are saying, The vision that he gazes on is for many days,
    and for distant times he prophesies.
    3d 4C 24
    9
    לָכֵ֞ן אֱמֹ֣ר אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה לֹא־תִמָּשֵׁ֥ךְ ע֖וֹד כָּל־דְּבָרָ֑י
    אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֲדַבֵּ֤ר דָּבָר֙ וְיֵ֣עָשֶׂ֔ה נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִֽה
    28 Therefore say to them, Thus says my Lord Yahweh, Not drawn out any longer are all my words.
    What I will speak, I have spoken, and it will be done, an oracle of my Lord Yahweh.
    3e 4C 23
    18

    Tuesday, November 14, 2017

    Ezekiel 36

    There are clearly parts of this that I have never read before. Probably skimmed it in some English version on a bus to work some morning in the late '60s, but never noticed or even could have noticed what it said. This is a remarkable description of the terrible responsibility of being Israel, even to the point of dispossession.

    The image of segregation we have recently read in Leviticus 15. The uncleanness rituals are therefore not a trivial item that no longer matters. They matter because of the unique relationship between God and humanity, all nations, all lands, of which Israel has been the example. Not that some specific natural function of humanity is unclean, but that the giver of all gifts requires us totally, and refuses to let us worship what is not of ultimate value. By natural human function, such as a monthly period or leprosy, a language of uncleanness has been formed that can by analogy 'explain' that all encompassing desire of the One who makes all things holy.

    Verse 27. Here is a parallel with Jeremiah 33. I expected from the translations that the form of the verb would be hiphil causative, I will make you walk, I will cause you to walk, etc. But in this case the verb for make עשה is separate from the verb to walk הלך. Hebrew doesn't use helping verbs like English does. This separation made me use undertake for both verbs in this verse, though make/do is the more common gloss for עשה. Twice in this chapter, עשה is used without an object, and I have used acting for the gloss.

    Stumble כשׁל and bereave שׁכל are too close for scribal comfort. It is quite possible that they might be read or written as each other simply by transposing one letter. Related to the theme of nations, (verses 3-7. 13-15 and later), it is possible that one should read stumbling-block in a few places. JB makes the nations singular in verses 13-14 and links the idea to infanticide. I don't see why the plural should suddenly refer back to Israel rather than continuing the pervasive theme of Yahweh acting on behalf of the nations round about and Israel being the stumbling-block. A consistent understanding of nation in the passage will resonate more effectively to the reception of verses 20-23 in Romans 2:24.

    Who will know that 'I am Yahweh'? Note even the mountains and hills will know. But their burden is also severe. Does Ezekiel see the ecological crisis?

    Prepositions again. One is stuck - in, among, within, in the midst of, etc. There is no isomorphic relationship in a translation, within a translation, or among readers in the midst of the text. ב, קרב, תוך, they all fit grammatically, and they all have slightly different shades of that dreadful word meaning. Is the spirit here in, within, or among? Read with care.

    When I publish, if ever, I will have a section that indicates which stem mappings are synonyms, which are interpretive choices or even ambiguous, and which are isomorphic, and where there are homonyms, and which English glosses I have allowed to map to multiple Hebrew stems. How should I set this up?

    Ezekiel 36 Fn Min Max Syll
    וְאַתָּ֣ה בֶן־אָדָ֔ם הִנָּבֵ֖א אֶל־הָרֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
    וְאָ֣מַרְתָּ֔ הָרֵי֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל שִׁמְע֖וּ דְּבַר־יְהוָֽה
    1 And you, child of humanity, prophesy to the mountains of Israel,
    and say, Mountains of Israel, hear the word of Yahweh.
    3e 4B 15
    15
    כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה יַ֣עַן אָמַ֧ר הָאוֹיֵ֛ב עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם הֶאָ֑ח
    וּבָמ֣וֹת עוֹלָ֔ם לְמֽוֹרָשָׁ֖ה הָ֥יְתָה לָּֽנוּ
    2 C Thus says my Lord Yahweh, Because the enemy said against you, Aha, and the high places of eras past, for a possession are ours. 3c 4C 20
    13
    לָכֵן֙ הִנָּבֵ֣א וְאָמַרְתָּ֔ כֹּ֥ה אָמַ֖ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה
    יַ֣עַן בְּיַ֡עַן שַׁמּוֹת֩ וְשָׁאֹ֨ף אֶתְכֶ֜ם מִסָּבִ֗יב לִֽהְיוֹתְכֶ֤ם מֽוֹרָשָׁה֙ לִשְׁאֵרִ֣ית הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וַתֵּֽעֲל֛וּ עַל־שְׂפַ֥ת לָשׁ֖וֹן וְדִבַּת־עָֽם
    3 Therefore prophesy and say, Thus says my Lord Yahweh,
    Because, because to desolate and to make you sigh heavily on every side, that you might become a possession of the residue of the nations, and you are offered up by the lips of a tongue, and are an infamy of a people,
    3d 4C 17
    40
    לָכֵן֙ הָרֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל שִׁמְע֖וּ דְּבַר־אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֑ה
    כֹּֽה־אָמַ֣ר אֲדֹנָ֣י יְ֠הוִה לֶהָרִ֨ים וְלַגְּבָע֜וֹת לָאֲפִיקִ֣ים וְלַגֵּאָי֗וֹת וְלֶחֳרָב֤וֹת הַשֹּֽׁמְמוֹת֙ וְלֶעָרִ֣ים הַנֶּעֱזָב֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֨ר הָי֤וּ לְבַז֙ וּלְלַ֔עַג לִשְׁאֵרִ֥ית הַגּוֹיִ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר מִסָּבִֽיב
    4 Therefore, O mountains of Israel, hear the word of my Lord Yahweh,
    Thus says my Lord Yahweh to the hills, and to the hillocks, to the river channels, and to the gorges, and to the deserts desolated, and to the cities forsaken, that were despoiled and derided of the residue of the nations who are on every side.
    3e 4C 16
    61
    לָכֵ֗ן כֹּֽה־אָמַר֮ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִה֒ אִם־לֹ֠א בְּאֵ֨שׁ קִנְאָתִ֥י דִבַּ֛רְתִּי עַל־שְׁאֵרִ֥ית הַגּוֹיִ֖ם וְעַל־אֱד֣וֹם כֻּלָּ֑א
    אֲשֶׁ֣ר נָתְנֽוּ־אֶת־אַרְצִ֣י ׀ לָ֠הֶם לְמ֨וֹרָשָׁ֜ה בְּשִׂמְחַ֤ת כָּל־לֵבָב֙ בִּשְׁאָ֣ט נֶ֔פֶשׁ לְמַ֥עַן מִגְרָשָׁ֖הּ לָבַֽז
    5 Therefore thus says my Lord Yahweh, Without fail, in the fire of my jealousy, I spoke to the residue of the nations, and concerning Edom, all of it,
    who have assigned my land to themselves for a possession with all gladness of heart, with scourged integrity, in order to expel her to be despoiled.
    3d 4C 33
    31
    לָכֵ֕ן הִנָּבֵ֖א עַל־אַדְמַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
    וְאָמַרְתָּ֡ לֶהָרִ֣ים וְ֠לַגְּבָעוֹת לָאֲפִיקִ֨ים וְלַגֵּאָי֜וֹת כֹּֽה־אָמַ֣ר ׀ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֗ה הִנְנִ֨י בְקִנְאָתִ֤י וּבַחֲמָתִי֙ דִּבַּ֔רְתִּי יַ֛עַן כְּלִמַּ֥ת גּוֹיִ֖ם נְשָׂאתֶֽם
    6 Therefore prophesy on the ground of Israel,
    and say to the hills and to the hillocks, to the river channels, and to the gorges, Thus says my Lord Yahweh, Behold me. In my jealousy and in my heat I have spoken, because the humiliation of nations you have borne.
    3d 4C 11
    52
    לָכֵ֗ן כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה אֲנִ֖י נָשָׂ֣אתִי אֶת־יָדִ֑י
    אִם־לֹ֤א הַגּוֹיִם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לָכֶ֣ם מִסָּבִ֔יב הֵ֖מָּה כְּלִמָּתָ֥ם יִשָּֽׂאוּ
    7 Therefore thus says my Lord Yahweh, I myself lifted up my hand.
    Without fail, the nations that are on every side of you, they, their humiliation will bear.
    3e 4C 18
    21
    וְאַתֶּ֞ם הָרֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ עַנְפְּכֶ֣ם תִּתֵּ֔נוּ וּפֶרְיְכֶ֥ם תִּשְׂא֖וּ לְעַמִּ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
    כִּ֥י קֵרְב֖וּ לָבֽוֹא
    8 And you, O mountains of Israel, your boughs you will give and your fruit you will bear for my people Israel,
    for their close combat is to come.
    3e 4C 26
    5
    כִּ֖י הִנְנִ֣י אֲלֵיכֶ֑ם
    וּפָנִ֣יתִי אֲלֵיכֶ֔ם וְנֶעֱבַדְתֶּ֖ם וְנִזְרַעְתֶּֽם
    9 g For note me well to you.
    And I faced to you, and you will be cultivated, and you will be sown.
    3e 4B 6
    16
    וְהִרְבֵּיתִ֤י עֲלֵיכֶם֙ אָדָ֔ם כָּל־בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כֻּלֹּ֑ה
    וְנֹֽשְׁבוּ֙ הֶֽעָרִ֔ים וְהֶחֳרָב֖וֹת תִּבָּנֶֽינָה
    10 And I will increase against you humanity, all the house of Israel, all of it.
    And the cities will be inhabited and the deserts will be built.
    3e 4C 16
    15
    וְהִרְבֵּיתִ֧י עֲלֵיכֶ֛ם אָדָ֥ם וּבְהֵמָ֖ה וְרָב֣וּ וּפָר֑וּ
    וְהוֹשַׁבְתִּ֨י אֶתְכֶ֜ם כְּקַדְמֽוֹתֵיכֶ֗ם וְהֵטִֽבֹתִי֙ מֵרִאשֹׁ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וִֽידַעְתֶּ֖ם כִּֽי־אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
    11 And I will increase against you humanity and beast, and they will increase and be fruitful,
    and I will settle you according to your prior status, and will do better than at your beginnings, and you will know that I am Yahweh.
    3c 4B 18
    28
    וְהוֹלַכְתִּי֩ עֲלֵיכֶ֨ם אָדָ֜ם אֶת־עַמִּ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וִֽירֵשׁ֔וּךָ וְהָיִ֥יתָ לָהֶ֖ם לְנַחֲלָ֑ה
    וְלֹא־תוֹסִ֥ף ע֖וֹד לְשַׁכְּלָֽם
    12 And I will usher humanity against you, my people Israel, and they will possess you, and you will be their inheritance,
    and you will not add any more to their bereavement.
    3e 4C 29
    7
    כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה יַ֚עַן אֹמְרִ֣ים לָכֶ֔ם אֹכֶ֥לֶת אָדָ֖ם אָ֑תְּ
    וּמְשַׁכֶּ֥לֶת גּוֹיַ֖יִךְ הָיִֽית
    13 C Thus says my Lord Yahweh, Because they say to you, You ate humanity,
    and you were one who bereaves your nations.
    3e 4C 20
    9
    לָכֵ֗ן אָדָם֙ לֹא־תֹ֣אכְלִי ע֔וֹד וְגוֹיַ֖יִךְ לֹ֣א תְשַׁכְּלִי־ע֑וֹד
    נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִֽה
    14 Therefore humanity you will not eat any more, and your nations you will not bereave any more,
    an oracle of my Lord Yahweh.
    3e 4B 17
    7
    וְלֹא־אַשְׁמִ֨יעַ אֵלַ֤יִךְ עוֹד֙ כְּלִמַּ֣ת הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וְחֶרְפַּ֥ת עַמִּ֖ים לֹ֣א תִשְׂאִי־ע֑וֹד
    וְגוֹיַ֙יִךְ֙ לֹא־תַכְשִׁ֣לִי ע֔וֹד נְאֻ֖ם אֲדֹנָ֥י יְהוִֽה
    15 And I will not broadcast to you any more the humiliation of the nations, and the reproach of peoples you will not bear any more,
    and you will not make your nations stumble any more, an oracle of my Lord Yahweh.
    3e 4C 24
    16
    וַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר 16 And the word of Yahweh happened to me, saying, 3e 3g 10
    בֶּן־אָדָ֗ם בֵּ֤ית יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ יֹשְׁבִ֣ים עַל־אַדְמָתָ֔ם וַיְטַמְּא֣וּ אוֹתָ֔הּ בְּדַרְכָּ֖ם וּבַעֲלִֽילוֹתָ֑ם
    כְּטֻמְאַת֙ הַנִּדָּ֔ה הָיְתָ֥ה דַרְכָּ֖ם לְפָנָֽי
    17 Child of humanity, the house of Israel inhabited their ground, and they made it unclean by their way and by their practices,
    as the uncleanness of the segregation was their way before me.
    3e 4C 27
    13
    וָאֶשְׁפֹּ֤ךְ חֲמָתִי֙ עֲלֵיהֶ֔ם עַל־הַדָּ֖ם אֲשֶׁר־שָׁפְכ֣וּ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
    וּבְגִלּוּלֵיהֶ֖ם טִמְּאֽוּהָ
    18 And I poured out my heat on them for the blood that they poured out over the earth, for their figurines.
    They had made it unclean.
    3e 4C 20
    8
    וָאָפִ֤יץ אֹתָם֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֔ם וַיִּזָּר֖וּ בָּאֲרָצ֑וֹת
    כְּדַרְכָּ֥ם וְכַעֲלִילוֹתָ֖ם שְׁפַטְתִּֽים
    19 And I dispersed them among the nations, and they were sifted among the lands.
    According to their way and according to their practices, I judged them.
    3e 4C 16
    12
    וַיָּב֗וֹא אֶל־הַגּוֹיִם֙ אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֣אוּ שָׁ֔ם וַֽיְחַלְּל֖וּ אֶת־שֵׁ֣ם קָדְשִׁ֑י
    בֶּאֱמֹ֤ר לָהֶם֙ עַם־יְהוָ֣ה אֵ֔לֶּה וּמֵאַרְצ֖וֹ יָצָֽאוּ
    20 And they came to the nations where they have come, and they profaned my holy name,
    as if to say to them, The people of Yahweh these are, and from his land they have gone out.
    3e 4C 19
    17
    וָאֶחְמֹ֖ל עַל־שֵׁ֣ם קָדְשִׁ֑י
    אֲשֶׁ֤ר חִלְּל֙וּהוּ֙ בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בַּגּוֹיִ֖ם אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֥אוּ שָֽׁמָּה
    21 But I have pity on my holy name,
    that the house of Israel have profaned among the nations to which they came.
    3e 4C 7
    18
    לָכֵ֞ן אֱמֹ֣ר לְבֵֽית־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה לֹ֧א לְמַעַנְכֶ֛ם אֲנִ֥י עֹשֶׂ֖ה בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
    כִּ֤י אִם־לְשֵׁם־קָדְשִׁי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חִלַּלְתֶּ֔ם בַּגּוֹיִ֖ם אֲשֶׁר־בָּ֥אתֶם שָֽׁם
    22 Therefore say to the house of Israel, Thus says my Lord Yahweh, Not for your sake I am acting O house of Israel,
    but for my holy name that you have profaned in the nations which you have come to.
    3c 4C 30
    19
    וְקִדַּשְׁתִּ֞י אֶת־שְׁמִ֣י הַגָּד֗וֹל הַֽמְחֻלָּל֙ בַּגּוֹיִ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר חִלַּלְתֶּ֖ם בְּתוֹכָ֑ם
    וְיָדְע֨וּ הַגּוֹיִ֜ם כִּי־אֲנִ֣י יְהוָ֗ה נְאֻם֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה בְּהִקָּדְשִׁ֥י בָכֶ֖ם לְעֵינֵיהֶֽם
    23 And I will sanctify my great name, the one profaned among the nations, which you profaned among them,
    and the nations will know that I am Yahweh, an oracle of my Lord Yahweh, when I will be sanctified in you for their eyes.
    3e 4B 24
    27
    וְלָקַחְתִּ֤י אֶתְכֶם֙ מִן־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם וְקִבַּצְתִּ֥י אֶתְכֶ֖ם מִכָּל־הָאֲרָצ֑וֹת
    וְהֵבֵאתִ֥י אֶתְכֶ֖ם אֶל־אַדְמַתְכֶֽם
    24 And I will take you from the nations, and I will collect you from all the lands,
    and I will bring you to your ground.
    3e 4C 22
    10
    וְזָרַקְתִּ֧י עֲלֵיכֶ֛ם מַ֥יִם טְהוֹרִ֖ים וּטְהַרְתֶּ֑ם
    מִכֹּ֧ל טֻמְאוֹתֵיכֶ֛ם וּמִכָּל־גִּלּ֥וּלֵיכֶ֖ם אֲטַהֵ֥ר אֶתְכֶֽם
    25 And I will dash against you clean water and you will be clean,
    from all your uncleanness. And from all your figurines I will cleanse you.
    3c 4A 14
    18
    וְנָתַתִּ֤י לָכֶם֙ לֵ֣ב חָדָ֔שׁ וְר֥וּחַ חֲדָשָׁ֖ה אֶתֵּ֣ן בְּקִרְבְּכֶ֑ם
    וַהֲסִ֨רֹתִ֜י אֶת־לֵ֤ב הָאֶ֙בֶן֙ מִבְּשַׂרְכֶ֔ם וְנָתַתִּ֥י לָכֶ֖ם לֵ֥ב בָּשָֽׂר
    26 And I will give to you a new heart and a new spirit I will give within you,
    and I will put aside the heart of stone from your flesh, and I will give to you a heart of flesh.
    3e 4C 21
    22
    וְאֶת־רוּחִ֖י אֶתֵּ֣ן בְּקִרְבְּכֶ֑ם
    וְעָשִׂ֗יתִי אֵ֤ת אֲשֶׁר־בְּחֻקַּי֙ תֵּלֵ֔כוּ וּמִשְׁפָּטַ֥י תִּשְׁמְר֖וּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶֽם
    27 And my spirit I will give among you,
    and I will undertake that in my statutes you will walk, and my judgments you will keep, and you will undertake them.
    3e 4C 10
    24
    וִישַׁבְתֶּ֣ם בָּאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֖תִּי לַאֲבֹֽתֵיכֶ֑ם
    וִהְיִ֤יתֶם לִי֙ לְעָ֔ם וְאָ֣נֹכִ֔י אֶהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם לֵאלֹהִֽים
    28 And you will settle in the land that I gave to your ancestors,
    and you will become my people and I, I will be your God.
    3e 4C 16
    17
    וְהוֹשַׁעְתִּ֣י אֶתְכֶ֔ם מִכֹּ֖ל טֻמְאֽוֹתֵיכֶ֑ם
    וְקָרָ֤אתִי אֶל־הַדָּגָן֙ וְהִרְבֵּיתִ֣י אֹת֔וֹ וְלֹא־אֶתֵּ֥ן עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם רָעָֽב
    29 And I will save you from all your uncleanness,
    and I will call to the grain, and I will increase it, and I will not permit against you a famine.
    3e 4C 12
    22
    וְהִרְבֵּיתִי֙ אֶת־פְּרִ֣י הָעֵ֔ץ וּתְנוּבַ֖ת הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה
    לְמַ֗עַן אֲ֠שֶׁר לֹ֣א תִקְח֥וּ ע֛וֹד חֶרְפַּ֥ת רָעָ֖ב בַּגּוֹיִֽם
    30 And I will increase the fruit of the tree, and the profit of the field,
    in order that you will not receive any more the reproach of a famine among the nations.
    3d 4B 15
    16
    וּזְכַרְתֶּם֙ אֶת־דַּרְכֵיכֶ֣ם הָרָעִ֔ים וּמַעַלְלֵיכֶ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־טוֹבִ֑ים
    וּנְקֹֽטֹתֶם֙ בִּפְנֵיכֶ֔ם עַ֚ל עֲוֺנֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וְעַ֖ל תּוֹעֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶֽם
    31 And you will remember your evil ways, and from your practices that not are good,
    you will be upset in your presence, concerning your iniquities and concerning your abominations.
    3e 4C 19
    20
    לֹ֧א לְמַעַנְכֶ֣ם אֲנִֽי־עֹשֶׂ֗ה נְאֻם֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה יִוָּדַ֖ע לָכֶ֑ם
    בּ֧וֹשׁוּ וְהִכָּלְמ֛וּ מִדַּרְכֵיכֶ֖ם בֵּ֥ית יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
    32 c Not for your sake I am acting, an oracle of my Lord Yahweh. Let it be known to you.
    Be ashamed and humiliated from your ways, O house of Israel.
    3c 4B 20
    14
    כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה בְּיוֹם֙ טַהֲרִ֣י אֶתְכֶ֔ם מִכֹּ֖ל עֲוֺנֽוֹתֵיכֶ֑ם
    וְהֽוֹשַׁבְתִּי֙ אֶת־הֶ֣עָרִ֔ים וְנִבְנ֖וּ הֶחֳרָבֽוֹת
    33 C Thus says my Lord Yahweh, In the day I have cleansed you from all your iniquities,
    then I will resettle the cities and the deserts will be built.
    3e 4C 22
    15
    וְהָאָ֥רֶץ הַנְּשַׁמָּ֖ה תֵּֽעָבֵ֑ד
    תַּ֚חַת אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָיְתָ֣ה שְׁמָמָ֔ה לְעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־עוֹבֵֽר
    34 And the desolated land will be cultivated,
    instead of being desolate in the sight of all who pass by.
    3e 4C 10
    15
    וְאָמְר֗וּ הָאָ֤רֶץ הַלֵּ֙זוּ֙ הַנְּשַׁמָּ֔ה הָיְתָ֖ה כְּגַן־עֵ֑דֶן
    וְהֶעָרִ֧ים הֶחֳרֵב֛וֹת וְהַֽנְשַׁמּ֥וֹת וְהַנֶּהֱרָס֖וֹת בְּצוּר֥וֹת יָשָֽׁבוּ
    35 And they will say, This land that was desolate has become as the garden of Eden,
    and the cities, deserted and desolated and overthrown, are fortified and are inhabited.
    3c 4C 18
    24
    וְיָדְע֣וּ הַגּוֹיִ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִֽשָּׁאֲרוּ֮ סְבִיבוֹתֵיכֶם֒ כִּ֣י ׀ אֲנִ֣י יְהוָ֗ה בָּנִ֙יתִי֙ הַנֶּ֣הֱרָס֔וֹת נָטַ֖עְתִּי הַנְּשַׁמָּ֑ה
    אֲנִ֥י יְהוָ֖ה דִּבַּ֥רְתִּי וְעָשִֽׂיתִי
    36 And the nations who are still here round about you will know that I, Yahweh, I built what was overthrown. I planted what was desolate.
    I am Yahweh. I have spoken and I will undertake.
    3e 4B 36
    11
    כֹּ֤ה אָמַר֙ אֲדֹנָ֣י יְהוִ֔ה ע֗וֹד זֹ֛את אִדָּרֵ֥שׁ לְבֵֽית־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת לָהֶ֑ם
    אַרְבֶּ֥ה אֹתָ֛ם כַּצֹּ֖אן אָדָֽם
    37 C Thus says my Lord Yahweh, for this I will still be searched out for the house of Israel to undertake for them.
    I will increase you like a flock of humanity.
    3d 4C 23
    8
    כְּצֹ֣אן קָֽדָשִׁ֗ים כְּצֹ֤אן יְרוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ בְּמ֣וֹעֲדֶ֔יהָ כֵּ֤ן תִּהְיֶ֙ינָה֙ הֶעָרִ֣ים הֶחֳרֵב֔וֹת מְלֵא֖וֹת צֹ֣אן אָדָ֑ם
    וְיָדְע֖וּ כִּֽי־אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
    38 Like a flock of holy ones, like the flock of Jerusalem in her engagement, so will the deserted cities be filled with a human flock,
    and they will know that I am Yahweh.
    3e 4C 33
    7

    Monday, November 13, 2017

    2 Chronicles 28

    Some parallels in 2 Kings 16, done last year. 

    I have always wondered about the fires these people made their children pass through. Now I see it is related to a somewhat archaic word that I needed to use and which we see in the traditional name Shrove Tuesday. (Speller does not recognize this phrase.) 

    To shrive, the gloss I have chosen for בער, may also be glossed as brute, kindle, kine (an animal), and as a location name. Shriving has to do with imposing a penance. While bringing up children is not a free for all, it is also not supposed to be a brutal battle ground. And I know there are plenty of places where that is just what it is. Whether it is the imposition by the stronger onto the weaker of religion, or convenience, or fear, there's no glory in such approaches.

    2 Chronicles 28 Fn Min Max Syll
    בֶּן־עֶשְׂרִ֤ים שָׁנָה֙ אָחָ֣ז בְּמָלְכ֔וֹ וְשֵׁשׁ־עֶשְׂרֵ֣ה שָׁנָ֔ה מָלַ֖ךְ בִּירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם
    וְלֹא־עָשָׂ֧ה הַיָּשָׁ֛ר בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהוָ֖ה כְּדָוִ֥יד אָבִֽיו
    1 A child of twenty years Ahaz was when he began to reign, and sixteen years he reigned in Jerusalem,
    and he did not do what is upright in the eyes of Yahweh like David his father.
    3c 4C 22
    16
    וַיֵּ֕לֶךְ בְּדַרְכֵ֖י מַלְכֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
    וְגַ֧ם מַסֵּכ֛וֹת עָשָׂ֖ה לַבְּעָלִֽים
    2 And he walked in the ways of the kings of Israel,
    and moreover, libations he did for the Baals.
    3c 4B 11
    10
    וְה֥וּא הִקְטִ֖יר בְּגֵ֣יא בֶן־הִנֹּ֑ם
    וַיַּבְעֵ֤ר אֶת־בָּנָיו֙ בָּאֵ֔שׁ כְּתֹֽעֲבוֹת֙ הַגּוֹיִ֔ם אֲשֶׁר֙ הֹרִ֣ישׁ יְהוָ֔ה מִפְּנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
    3 And he was one who burned incense in the gorge of the child of Hinnom,
    and shrove his children in the fire according to the abominations of the nations, whom Yahweh had dispossessed before the face of the children of Israel.
    3e 4C 9
    28
    וַיְזַבֵּ֧חַ וַיְקַטֵּ֛ר בַּבָּמ֖וֹת וְעַל־הַגְּבָע֑וֹת
    וְתַ֖חַת כָּל־עֵ֥ץ רַעֲנָֽן
    4 And he sacrificed and burnt incense on the high places and on the hillocks,
    and under every green tree.
    3c 4A 15
    8
    וַֽיִּתְּנֵ֜הוּ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָיו֮ בְּיַ֣ד מֶ֣לֶךְ אֲרָם֒ וַיַּ֨כּוּ־ב֔וֹ וַיִּשְׁבּ֤וּ מִמֶּ֙נּוּ֙ שִׁבְיָ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֔ה וַיָּבִ֖יאוּ דַּרְמָ֑שֶׂק
    וְ֠גַם בְּיַד־מֶ֤לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ נִתָּ֔ן וַיַּךְ־בּ֖וֹ מַכָּ֥ה גְדוֹלָֽה
    5 And Yahweh his God gave him into the hand of the king of Aram, and they struck against him and took captive from him a great captivity, and they came to Damascus.
    And also into the hand of king of Israel he was given, and he struck against him a great strike.
    3e 4C 36
    19
    וַיַּהֲרֹג֩ פֶּ֨קַח בֶּן־רְמַלְיָ֜הוּ בִּֽיהוּדָ֗ה מֵאָ֨ה וְעֶשְׂרִ֥ים אֶ֛לֶף בְּי֥וֹם אֶחָ֖ד הַכֹּ֣ל בְּנֵי־חָ֑יִל
    בְּעָזְבָ֕ם אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י אֲבוֹתָֽם
    6 And Peqach child of Remalia slew in Judah a hundred and twenty thousand in one day, the whole of the children of wealth,
    in that they had forsaken Yahweh the God of their ancestors.
    3d 4B 30
    12
    וַֽיַּהֲרֹ֞ג זִכְרִ֣י ׀ גִּבּ֣וֹר אֶפְרַ֗יִם אֶת־מַעֲשֵׂיָ֙הוּ֙ בֶּן־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וְאֶת־עַזְרִיקָ֖ם נְגִ֣יד הַבָּ֑יִת
    וְאֶת־אֶלְקָנָ֖ה מִשְׁנֵ֥ה הַמֶּֽלֶךְ
    7 And he slew the males of valour of Ephraim, Maaseyah child of Hammelech, and Azriqam, herald of the house,
    and Elkanah second to the king.
    3e 4B 29
    10
    וַיִּשְׁבּוּ֩ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֨ל מֵֽאֲחֵיהֶ֜ם מָאתַ֣יִם אֶ֗לֶף נָשִׁים֙ בָּנִ֣ים וּבָנ֔וֹת וְגַם־שָׁלָ֥ל רָ֖ב בָּזְז֣וּ מֵהֶ֑ם
    וַיָּבִ֥יאוּ אֶת־הַשָּׁלָ֖ל לְשֹׁמְרֽוֹן
    8 And the children of Israel took captive from their kin two hundred thousand women, sons, and daughters, and moreover abundant spoil they looted of them,
    and they brought the spoil to Samaria.
    3e 4B 32
    11
    וְ֠שָׁם הָיָ֨ה נָבִ֥יא לַֽיהוָה֮ עֹדֵ֣ד שְׁמוֹ֒ וַיֵּצֵ֗א לִפְנֵ֤י הַצָּבָא֙ הַבָּ֣א לְשֹׁמְר֔וֹן וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לָהֶ֗ם הִ֠נֵּה בַּחֲמַ֨ת יְהוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֵֽי־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶ֛ם עַל־יְהוּדָ֖ה נְתָנָ֣ם בְּיֶדְכֶ֑ם
    וַתַּֽהַרְגוּ־בָ֣ם בְזַ֔עַף עַ֥ד לַשָּׁמַ֖יִם הִגִּֽיעַ
    9 ~ And there was a prophet of Yahweh, Oded his name, and he came out before the host that came to Samaria, and said to them, Behold Yahweh the God of your ancestors was heated about Judah, and he gave them into your hand,
    and you have slain them in outrage, touching even to the heavens.
    3c 4C 53
    15
    וְ֠עַתָּה בְּנֵֽי־יְהוּדָ֤ה וִֽירוּשָׁלִַ֙ם֙ אַתֶּ֣ם אֹמְרִ֔ים לִכְבֹּ֛שׁ לַעֲבָדִ֥ים וְלִשְׁפָח֖וֹת לָכֶ֑ם
    הֲלֹ֤א רַק־אַתֶּם֙ עִמָּכֶ֣ם אֲשָׁמ֔וֹת לַיהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם
    10 ~ And now you are saying to take the children of Judah and Jerusalem under control as male slaves and as female slaves for you?
    But are there not with you yourselves, offenses to Yahweh your God?
    3d 4C 28
    17
    וְעַתָּ֣ה שְׁמָע֔וּנִי וְהָשִׁ֙יבוּ֙ הַשִּׁבְיָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר שְׁבִיתֶ֖ם מֵאֲחֵיכֶ֑ם
    כִּ֛י חֲר֥וֹן אַף־יְהוָ֖ה עֲלֵיכֶֽם
    11 So now hear me, and return the captives that you have captured from your kin,
    for the burning of the anger of Yahweh is on you.
    3d 4B 23
    9
    וַיָּקֻ֨מוּ אֲנָשִׁ֜ים מֵרָאשֵׁ֣י בְנֵֽי־אֶפְרַ֗יִם עֲזַרְיָ֤הוּ בֶן־יְהֽוֹחָנָן֙ בֶּרֶכְיָ֣הוּ בֶן־מְשִׁלֵּמ֔וֹת וִֽיחִזְקִיָּ֙הוּ֙ בֶּן־שַׁלֻּ֔ם וַעֲמָשָׂ֖א בֶּן־חַדְלָ֑י
    עַל־הַבָּאִ֖ים מִן־הַצָּבָֽא
    12 And persons arose from the heads of the children of Ephraim, Azariah child of Yehoxanan, Berechiah child of Mishlamot, and Yichezekiah child of Shalum, and Amasa child of Xadlai,
    against those who came from the host.
    3e 4C 47
    8
    וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ לָהֶ֗ם לֹא־תָבִ֤יאוּ אֶת־הַשִּׁבְיָה֙ הֵ֔נָּה כִּי֩ לְאַשְׁמַ֨ת יְהוָ֤ה עָלֵ֙ינוּ֙ אַתֶּ֣ם אֹמְרִ֔ים לְהֹסִ֥יף עַל־חַטֹּאתֵ֖ינוּ וְעַל־אַשְׁמָתֵ֑ינוּ
    כִּֽי־רַבָּ֤ה אַשְׁמָה֙ לָ֔נוּ וַחֲר֥וֹן אָ֖ף עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
    13 And they said to them, You will not come with the captives here, for to offend Yahweh is against us. You are saying to add to our sins and to our offenses,
    for much is our offence and fierce anger against Israel.
    3e 4C 41
    14
    וַיַּעֲזֹ֣ב הֶֽחָל֗וּץ אֶת־הַשִּׁבְיָה֙ וְאֶת־הַבִּזָּ֔ה לִפְנֵ֥י הַשָּׂרִ֖ים וְכָל־הַקָּהָֽל 14 And the ready-armed deferred with the captivity and the loot before the nobility and all the congregation. 3e 4B 26
    וַיָּקֻ֣מוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים֩ אֲשֶׁר־נִקְּב֨וּ בְשֵׁמ֜וֹת וַיַּחֲזִ֣יקוּ בַשִּׁבְיָ֗ה וְכָֽל־מַעֲרֻמֵּיהֶם֮ הִלְבִּ֣ישׁוּ מִן־הַשָּׁלָל֒ וַיַּלְבִּשׁ֣וּם וַ֠יַּנְעִלוּם וַיַּאֲכִל֨וּם וַיַּשְׁק֜וּם וַיְסֻכ֗וּם וַיְנַהֲל֤וּם בַּחֲמֹרִים֙ לְכָל־כּוֹשֵׁ֔ל וַיְבִיא֛וּם יְרֵח֥וֹ עִיר־הַתְּמָרִ֖ים אֵ֣צֶל אֲחֵיהֶ֑ם
    וַיָּשׁ֖וּבוּ שֹׁמְרֽוֹן
    15 And the men arose that were drilled by name, and encouraged the captives, and all that were naked they clothed from the spoil. And they clothed them and put sandals on them, and fed them, and gave them drink, and put makeup on them, and for all who stumbled, refreshed them on the asses, and brought them to Jericho, the city of palm trees, next to their kin,
    and they returned to Samaria.
    3d 4C 83
    6
    בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֗יא שָׁלַ֞ח הַמֶּ֧לֶךְ אָחָ֛ז עַל־מַלְכֵ֥י אַשּׁ֖וּר לַעְזֹ֥ר לֽוֹ 16 At that time, king Ahaz sent to the kings of Ashur to help him. 3c 4B 19
    וְע֥וֹד אֲדוֹמִ֖ים בָּ֑אוּ
    וַיַּכּ֥וּ בִיהוּדָ֖ה וַיִּשְׁבּוּ־שֶֽׁבִי
    17 For still Edom had come,
    and had struck in Judah and had carried away captives.
    3e 4A 7
    10
    וּפְלִשְׁתִּ֣ים פָּשְׁט֗וּ בְּעָרֵ֨י הַשְּׁפֵלָ֣ה וְהַנֶּגֶב֮ לִֽיהוּדָה֒ וַֽ֠יִּלְכְּדוּ אֶת־בֵּֽית־שֶׁ֨מֶשׁ וְאֶת־אַיָּל֜וֹן וְאֶת־הַגְּדֵר֗וֹת וְאֶת־שׂוֹכ֤וֹ וּבְנוֹתֶ֙יהָ֙ וְאֶת־תִּמְנָ֣ה וּבְנוֹתֶ֔יהָ וְאֶת־גִּמְז֖וֹ וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֶ֑יהָ
    וַיֵּשְׁב֖וּ שָֽׁם
    18 And Philistines pillaged in the cities of the lowly places and of the south to Judah, and they conquered the house of the sun, and Ailon and Gdeirot, and Socoh and its built-up areas, and Timnah and its built-up areas, and Gimzo and its built-up areas,
    and they settled there.
    3e 4C 62
    4
    כִּֽי־הִכְנִ֤יעַ יְהוָה֙ אֶת־יְהוּדָ֔ה בַּעֲב֖וּר אָחָ֣ז מֶֽלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
    כִּ֤י הִפְרִ֙יעַ֙ בִּֽיהוּדָ֔ה וּמָע֥וֹל מַ֖עַל בַּיהוָֽה
    19 For Yahweh brought Judah to heel on behalf of Ahaz, king of Israel,
    for he had made Judah negligent, and he trespassed against Yahweh.
    3e 4C 20
    14
    וַיָּבֹ֣א עָלָ֔יו תִּלְּגַ֥ת פִּלְנְאֶ֖סֶר מֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֑וּר
    וַיָּ֥צַר ל֖וֹ וְלֹ֥א חֲזָקֽוֹ
    20 And Tiglat Pileser [oddly spelled here as Tilgat Pilneser] king of Ashur came to him,
    and laid siege for him but did not encourage him.
    3e 4B 15
    9
    כִּֽי־חָלַ֤ק אָחָז֙ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית יְהוָ֔ה וְאֶת־בֵּ֥ית הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ וְהַשָּׂרִ֑ים
    וַיִּתֵּן֙ לְמֶ֣לֶךְ אַשּׁ֔וּר וְלֹ֥א לְעֶזְרָ֖ה לֽוֹ
    21 For Ahaz divided the house of Yahweh and the house of the king and the nobles,
    and he yielded to the king of Ashur, but he was no help to him.
    3e 4C 18
    14
    וּבְעֵת֙ הָצֵ֣ר ל֔וֹ וַיּ֖וֹסֶף לִמְע֣וֹל בַּיהוָ֑ה
    ה֖וּא הַמֶּ֥לֶךְ אָחָֽז
    22 And at the time of his trouble he added to the trespass against Yahweh.
    This is the king Ahaz.
    3e 4B 12
    6
    וַיִּזְבַּ֗ח לֵֽאלֹהֵ֣י דַרְמֶשֶׂק֮ הַמַּכִּ֣ים בּוֹ֒ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר כִּ֠י אֱלֹהֵ֤י מַלְכֵֽי־אֲרָם֙ הֵ֚ם מַעְזְרִ֣ים אוֹתָ֔ם לָהֶ֥ם אֲזַבֵּ֖חַ וְיַעְזְר֑וּנִי
    וְהֵ֛ם הָֽיוּ־ל֥וֹ לְהַכְשִׁיל֖וֹ וּלְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
    23 And he sacrificed to the gods of Damascus, who struck against him. And he said, For the gods of the kings of Aram, they help them. To them I will sacrifice, and they will help me.
    And they became for him a stumbling-block and for all Israel.
    3d 4C 40
    13
    וַיֶּאֱסֹ֨ף אָחָ֜ז אֶת־כְּלֵ֣י בֵית־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֗ים וַיְקַצֵּץ֙ אֶת־כְּלֵ֣י בֵית־הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים וַיִּסְגֹּ֖ר אֶת־דַּלְת֣וֹת בֵּית־יְהוָ֑ה
    וַיַּ֨עַשׂ ל֧וֹ מִזְבְּח֛וֹת בְּכָל־פִּנָּ֖ה בִּירוּשָׁלִָֽם
    24 And Ahaz gathered the vessels of the house of God, and sundered the vessels of the house of God, and he locked the gateways of the house of Yahweh,
    and he made altars for him in every corner in Jerusalem.
    3c 4B 34
    15
    וּבְכָל־עִ֨יר וָעִ֤יר לִֽיהוּדָה֙ עָשָׂ֣ה בָמ֔וֹת לְקַטֵּ֖ר לֵֽאלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֑ים
    וַיַּכְעֵ֕ס אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י אֲבֹתָֽיו
    25 And in every city by city of Judah, he made high places to burn incense to other gods,
    and grieved Yahweh the God of his ancestors.
    3e 4C 21
    12
    וְיֶ֤תֶר דְּבָרָיו֙ וְכָל־דְּרָכָ֔יו הָרִאשֹׁנִ֖ים וְהָאַחֲרוֹנִ֑ים
    הִנָּ֣ם כְּתוּבִ֔ים עַל־סֵ֥פֶר מַלְכֵֽי־יְהוּדָ֖ה וְיִשְׂרָאֵֽל
    26 And the remainder of his matters, and all his ways, the former and the latter,
    behold they are written in the record of the kings of Judah and Israel.
    3e 4C 21
    17
    וַיִּשְׁכַּ֨ב אָחָ֜ז עִם־אֲבֹתָ֗יו וַֽיִּקְבְּרֻ֤הוּ בָעִיר֙ בִּיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם כִּ֚י לֹ֣א הֱבִיאֻ֔הוּ לְקִבְרֵ֖י מַלְכֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
    וַיִּמְלֹ֛ךְ יְחִזְקִיָּ֥הֽוּ בְנ֖וֹ תַּחְתָּֽיו
    27 And Ahaz was laid out with his ancestors, and they entombed him in the city, in Jerusalem. but they did not bring him to the tombs of the kings of Israel.
    And Hezekiah his son reigned in his stead.
    3d 4C 34
    12