Here if we mirror read for a moment, we can see what social customs there were when this was written at the time of a death. There is a catena of actions expressed by several differing words in sequence that all speak to human sympathy and sometimes the pathology of mourning: carousing, wailing, condolence, entombment of course, self-slashing(?), baldness, riving (violent tear or split) as a form of lament, comfort (נחם), a cup of consolation (נחם) and partying.
(I leave in carousing since it is common practice at a wake to be drunk. There is no need to invent a hapax here as some dictionaries do. The word seems to be used only once elsewhere in any case.) Perhaps it is apt to open and close the sequence of singly written concepts with words related to celebration. Does God mock our social customs here through the prophet? Of course we are quite able to mock ourselves if we have a little security. It's quite a contrast to the Rehabites of chapter 35.
There is hapax here, אנינה, perhaps just grace, or perhaps the final letter indicates a possessive referring back to the land. But it is strange that grace should be dependent on land. Even the denial of grace is too severe. In fact it is not true that there was no grace in the exile. What about a little sarcasm: my usual grace, if you please - making two words of the one. It seems not out of place to throw in a נה here.
(Many of my earliest decisions some from as early as 2007 have been subject to change this month. I have touched about 237 chapters, often just a touch to a word, or reworking a stem, or just refining the semantic domain. Still - a lot of changes accumulate even in two or three weeks.)
By the time you get to the end of this chapter, you may see the answer to the catena of questions I posed two days ago. I did not know this chapter was going to be so specific.
|וַיְהִ֥י דְבַר־יְהוָ֖ה אֵלַ֥י לֵאמֹֽר||1||And the word of Yahweh happened to me, saying,||3e||3g||10|
|לֹֽא־תִקַּ֥ח לְךָ֖ אִשָּׁ֑ה |
וְלֹֽא־יִהְי֤וּ לְךָ֙ בָּנִ֣ים וּבָנ֔וֹת בַּמָּק֖וֹם הַזֶּֽה
|2||Do not take for yourself a wife, |
and let there not be for you sons or daughters in this place.
|כִּי־כֹ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה עַל־הַבָּנִים֙ וְעַל־הַבָּנ֔וֹת הַיִּלּוֹדִ֖ים בַּמָּק֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה |
וְעַֽל־אִמֹּתָ֞ם הַיֹּלְד֣וֹת אוֹתָ֗ם וְעַל־אֲבוֹתָ֛ם הַמּוֹלִדִ֥ים אוֹתָ֖ם בָּאָ֥רֶץ הַזֹּֽאת
|3||Because thus says Yahweh concerning the sons and concerning the daughters born in this place, |
and concerning their mothers that give birth to them, and concerning their fathers that beget to them in this land,
|מְמוֹתֵ֨י תַחֲלֻאִ֜ים יָמֻ֗תוּ לֹ֤א יִסָּֽפְדוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א יִקָּבֵ֔רוּ לְדֹ֛מֶן עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָאֲדָמָ֖ה יִֽהְי֑וּ |
וּבַחֶ֤רֶב וּבָֽרָעָב֙ יִכְל֔וּ וְהָיְתָ֤ה נִבְלָתָם֙ לְמַאֲכָ֔ל לְע֥וֹף הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וּלְבֶהֱמַ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ
|4||Deaths by disease they will die. they will not be bewailed and they will not be entombed. |
For compost over the face of the ground they will be, and by the sword, and by famine, they will be consumed, and their corpses will be as food to the fowl of the heavens and to the beasts of the earth.
|כִּֽי־כֹ֣ה ׀ אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֗ה אַל־תָּבוֹא֙ בֵּ֣ית מַרְזֵ֔חַ וְאַל־תֵּלֵ֣ךְ לִסְפּ֔וֹד וְאַל־תָּנֹ֖ד לָהֶ֑ם |
כִּֽי־אָסַ֨פְתִּי אֶת־שְׁלוֹמִ֜י מֵאֵ֨ת הָעָ֤ם־הַזֶּה֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה אֶת־הַחֶ֖סֶד וְאֶת־הָֽרַחֲמִֽים
|5||Because thus says Yahweh, Do not enter the house of carousing, and do not go to wail, and do not condole them, |
for I have gathered my peace from this people, An oracle of Yahweh, the kindness and the compassions.
|וּמֵ֨תוּ גְדֹלִ֧ים וּקְטַנִּ֛ים בָּאָ֥רֶץ הַזֹּ֖את לֹ֣א יִקָּבֵ֑רוּ |
וְלֹֽא־יִסְפְּד֣וּ לָהֶ֔ם וְלֹ֣א יִתְגֹּדַ֔ד וְלֹ֥א יִקָּרֵ֖חַ לָהֶֽם
|6||~||And they will die, the greater and the lesser, in this land. They will be not entombed, |
and there will not be wailing for them, nor self-slashing, nor baldness for them,
|וְלֹֽא־יִפְרְס֥וּ לָהֶ֛ם עַל־אֵ֖בֶל לְנַחֲמ֣וֹ עַל־מֵ֑ת |
וְלֹֽא־יַשְׁק֤וּ אוֹתָם֙ כּ֣וֹס תַּנְחוּמִ֔ים עַל־אָבִ֖יו וְעַל־אִמּֽוֹ
|7||Nor bisecting for them to lament, to comfort for what is dead, |
nor will they give drink to them, a cup of consolation concerning his father or concerning his mother.
|וּבֵית־מִשְׁתֶּ֥ה לֹא־תָב֖וֹא לָשֶׁ֣בֶת אוֹתָ֑ם |
|8||And the house of partying do not enter to sit with them, |
to eat and imbibe.
|כִּי֩ כֹ֨ה אָמַ֜ר יְהוָ֤ה צְבָאוֹת֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הִנְנִ֨י מַשְׁבִּ֜ית מִן־הַמָּק֥וֹם הַזֶּ֛ה לְעֵינֵיכֶ֖ם וּבִֽימֵיכֶ֑ם |
ק֤וֹל שָׂשׂוֹן֙ וְק֣וֹל שִׂמְחָ֔ה ק֥וֹל חָתָ֖ן וְק֥וֹל כַּלָּֽה
|9||~||Because thus says Yahweh of hosts, the God of Israel, Note me well, making to cease from this place in your eyes and in your days, |
the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of bridegroom and the voice of bride.
|וְהָיָ֗ה כִּ֤י תַגִּיד֙ לָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה אֵ֥ת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִ֖ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה |
וְאָמְר֣וּ אֵלֶ֗יךָ עַל־מֶה֩ דִבֶּ֨ר יְהוָ֤ה עָלֵ֙ינוּ֙ אֵ֣ת כָּל־הָרָעָ֤ה הַגְּדוֹלָה֙ הַזֹּ֔את וּמֶ֤ה עֲוֺנֵ֙נוּ֙ וּמֶ֣ה חַטָּאתֵ֔נוּ אֲשֶׁ֥ר חָטָ֖אנוּ לַֽיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ
|10||And it will be that when you make it clear to this people all these words, |
and they say to you, Why does Yahweh speak against us all this great evil? or what is our iniquity? or what our sin that we have sinned against Yahweh our God?
|וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם עַל֩ אֲשֶׁר־עָזְב֨וּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶ֤ם אוֹתִי֙ נְאֻם־יְהוָ֔ה וַיֵּלְכ֗וּ אַֽחֲרֵי֙ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֔ים וַיַּעַבְד֖וּם וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲו֣וּ לָהֶ֑ם |
וְאֹתִ֣י עָזָ֔בוּ וְאֶת־תּוֹרָתִ֖י לֹ֥א שָׁמָֽרוּ
|11||Then you say to them, In that your ancestors have forsaken me, an oracle of Yahweh, and they went after other gods and served them and prostrated themselves to them, |
and me they have forsaken, and my instruction they did not keep.
|וְאַתֶּ֛ם הֲרֵעֹתֶ֥ם לַעֲשׂ֖וֹת מֵאֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶ֑ם |
וְהִנְּכֶ֣ם הֹלְכִ֗ים אִ֚ישׁ אַֽחֲרֵי֙ שְׁרִר֣וּת לִבּֽוֹ־הָרָ֔ע לְבִלְתִּ֖י שְׁמֹ֥עַ אֵלָֽי
|12||And you, your evil, you do more than your ancestors, |
and lo, you are each ambling after the stubbornness of its evil heart, so that it does not hear me.
|וְהֵטַלְתִּ֣י אֶתְכֶ֗ם מֵעַל֙ הָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את עַל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר֙ לֹ֣א יְדַעְתֶּ֔ם אַתֶּ֖ם וַאֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶ֑ם |
וַעֲבַדְתֶּם־שָׁ֞ם אֶת־אֱלֹהִ֤ים אֲחֵרִים֙ יוֹמָ֣ם וָלַ֔יְלָה אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹֽא־אֶתֵּ֥ן לָכֶ֖ם חֲנִינָֽה
|13||And I will hurl you from off this land over the land that you do not know, you nor your ancestors, |
and you will serve there other gods day and night, where I will not give you my grace, if you will.
|לָכֵ֛ן הִנֵּֽה־יָמִ֥ים בָּאִ֖ים נְאֻם־יְהוָ֑ה |
וְלֹֽא־יֵאָמֵ֥ר עוֹד֙ חַי־יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֧ר הֶעֱלָ֛ה אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם
|14||Therefore behold, days are coming, an oracle of Yahweh, |
and it will be said no longer, Yahweh lives who brought up the children of Israel from the land of Egypt.
|כִּ֣י אִם־חַי־יְהוָ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֶעֱלָ֜ה אֶת־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ צָפ֔וֹן וּמִכֹּל֙ הָֽאֲרָצ֔וֹת אֲשֶׁ֥ר הִדִּיחָ֖ם שָׁ֑מָּה |
וַהֲשִֽׁבֹתִים֙ עַל־אַדְמָתָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָתַ֖תִּי לַאֲבוֹתָֽם
|15||B||But rather, Yahweh lives who brought up the children of Israel from the land of the north, and from all the lands that he banished them to, |
and I will return them to their ground that I gave to their ancestors.
|הִנְנִ֨י שֹׁלֵ֜חַ לְדַיָּגִ֥ים רַבִּ֛ים נְאֻם־יְהוָ֖ה וְדִיג֑וּם |
וְאַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֗ן אֶשְׁלַח֙ לְרַבִּ֣ים צַיָּדִ֔ים וְצָד֞וּם מֵעַ֤ל כָּל־הַר֙ וּמֵעַ֣ל כָּל־גִּבְעָ֔ה וּמִנְּקִיקֵ֖י הַסְּלָעִֽים
|16||Behold me, I will send for many fishers, an oracle of Yahweh, and they will fish for them |
and after such, I will send for many hunters, and they will hunt them from over every hill, and from over every hillock, and from the caverns of the cliffs.
|כִּ֤י עֵינַי֙ עַל־כָּל־דַּרְכֵיהֶ֔ם לֹ֥א נִסְתְּר֖וּ מִלְּפָנָ֑י |
וְלֹֽא־נִצְפַּ֥ן עֲוֺנָ֖ם מִנֶּ֥גֶד עֵינָֽי
|17||C||For my eyes are over all their ways. They are not hid from my presence, |
nor is their iniquity occluded from before my eyes.
|וְשִׁלַּמְתִּ֣י רִֽאשׁוֹנָ֗ה מִשְׁנֵ֤ה עֲוֺנָם֙ וְחַטָּאתָ֔ם עַ֖ל חַלְּלָ֣ם אֶת־אַרְצִ֑י |
בְּנִבְלַ֤ת שִׁקּֽוּצֵיהֶם֙ וְתוֹעֲב֣וֹתֵיהֶ֔ם מָלְא֖וּ אֶת־נַחֲלָתִֽי
|18||And I will repay, first twofold, their iniquity and their sin over their profaning my land. |
With the corpses of their detestable things and their abominations, they have filled my own inheritance.
|יְהוָ֞ה עֻזִּ֧י וּמָעֻזִּ֛י וּמְנוּסִ֖י בְּי֣וֹם צָרָ֑ה |
אֵלֶ֗יךָ גּוֹיִ֤ם יָבֹ֙אוּ֙ מֵֽאַפְסֵי־אָ֔רֶץ וְיֹאמְר֗וּ אַךְ־שֶׁ֙קֶר֙ נָחֲל֣וּ אֲבוֹתֵ֔ינוּ הֶ֖בֶל וְאֵֽין־בָּ֥ם מוֹעִֽיל
|19||Yahweh my strength, and my stronghold, and my haven in the day of trouble, |
against you nations will come from the ends of the earth, and they will say, Surely falsehood our ancestors inherited, futility, and there is nothing in them of use.
|הֲיַעֲשֶׂה־לּ֥וֹ אָדָ֖ם אֱלֹהִ֑ים |
וְהֵ֖מָּה לֹ֥א אֱלֹהִֽים
|20||Will humus make for itself gods? |
But they are not gods.
|לָכֵן֙ הִנְנִ֣י מֽוֹדִיעָ֔ם בַּפַּ֣עַם הַזֹּ֔את אוֹדִיעֵ֥ם אֶת־יָדִ֖י וְאֶת־גְּבֽוּרָתִ֑י |
וְיָדְע֖וּ כִּֽי־שְׁמִ֥י יְהוָֽה
|21||So note me well, I will have them know this, time after time. I will have them know my hand and my valour, |
and they will know that my name is Yahweh.