Sunday, March 26, 2017

Exodus 10

I was stuck. And now am unstuck. It is quite easy to get stuck. So many questions arise when reading this foreign story in a foreign tongue and a foreign script that my mind must rest before attempting to deal with them.

Hardening of the heart. KJV uses several quite distinct roots for this one phrase. Here is how I have combed out the differences: A heart may be assured, courageous (resolute), glorified (heavy), or hardened in the sense of intransigent (also the same word as bow as in 'bow and arrow').

אמץ assurance(3), assure(7), assured(21), assures(1), bay(2), more assured(1), one assured(1), sure(1)
חזק courage(7), courageous(38), encourage(5), encouraged himself(1), encouraged(27), give courage(1), given courage(1), made resolute(6), make resolute(4), more courage than(1), resolute(37), resolutely took hold(1), resolutely(4), resolved(3), revamp(7), revamped(2), show himself resolute(1)
כבד glorified(5), glorifies(4), glorify(12), glorious ones(2), glorious things(1), glorious(3), glory(144), heavier(2), heaviness(1), heavy(24), liver(1), made heavy(1), make heavy(1), make yourself heavy(2), making heavy(1), one glorifies(1), pile(1)
קשׁה ... bow(2), bow(35), bows(1), hair-(1), hammered work(8), hammered(1), hard news(1), hard(9), harden(3), hardened(7), hardens(1), hardness(1), intransigence(4), intransigent(7)

A related psychological state: stubborn, סור, but it is not just one English word. In this passage Pharaoh's heart is heavy in the sense of self-glorified in verse 1, but in verses 20 and 27 it is resolute or assured that Moses and Aaron cannot get away from him. They and the people will be kept in their bondage. And Pharaoh has a point. The world for us is captivating.

In oversimplifying the translation, perhaps to make the English easier to read, the translators have not improved understanding. How is one to know how to think about our complex humanity from this canonical example, if one learns from an oversimplified text? It's fine as long as we draw no conclusions about what we think we know in this history and story. But human beings love to draw conclusions (true or false), and then draw others into their circle of influence. The simpler the better. "O what a mess I have inherited. Only I can fix it!" As Pharaoh warns, I too must take care to dethrone myself also. We face evil. In what can we trust? I am glad that I reread Psalm 27 the other day.

Now which plagues are these? We seem to be backing into this story. They are the 8th and the ninth.

Exodus 10 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֔ה בֹּ֖א אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֑ה
כִּֽי־אֲנִ֞י הִכְבַּ֤דְתִּי אֶת־לִבּוֹ֙ וְאֶת־לֵ֣ב עֲבָדָ֔יו לְמַ֗עַן שִׁתִ֛י אֹתֹתַ֥י אֵ֖לֶּה בְּקִרְבּֽוֹ
1 And Yahweh said to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh,
for I have myself made his heart heavy, and the heart of his servants, in order to set these my signs within him,
3d 4C 12
27
וּלְמַ֡עַן תְּסַפֵּר֩ בְּאָזְנֵ֨י בִנְךָ֜ וּבֶן־בִּנְךָ֗ אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁ֤ר הִתְעַלַּ֙לְתִּי֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם וְאֶת־אֹתֹתַ֖י אֲשֶׁר־שַׂ֣מְתִּי בָ֑ם
וִֽידַעְתֶּ֖ם כִּי־אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
2 And so that you may recount in the ears of your child, and the child of your child, what my practices were in Egypt, and my signs that I set within them,
and you will know that I am Yahweh.
3e 4C 35
7
וַיָּבֹ֨א מֹשֶׁ֣ה וְאַהֲרֹן֮ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה֒ וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ אֵלָ֗יו כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י הָֽעִבְרִ֔ים עַד־מָתַ֣י מֵאַ֔נְתָּ לֵעָנֹ֖ת מִפָּנָ֑י
שַׁלַּ֥ח עַמִּ֖י וְיַֽעַבְדֻֽנִי
3 And Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh, and said to him, Thus says Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, How long will you not answer in my presence?
Set my people loose, that they may serve me.
3e 4C 40
9
כִּ֛י אִם־מָאֵ֥ן אַתָּ֖ה לְשַׁלֵּ֣חַ אֶת־עַמִּ֑י
הִנְנִ֨י מֵבִ֥יא מָחָ֛ר אַרְבֶּ֖ה בִּגְבֻלֶֽךָ
4 d Because, if will not you set my people loose,
note me well, I will bring tomorrow, locust within your border.
3d 4B 13
12
וְכִסָּה֙ אֶת־עֵ֣ין הָאָ֔רֶץ וְלֹ֥א יוּכַ֖ל לִרְאֹ֣ת אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וְאָכַ֣ל ׀ אֶת־יֶ֣תֶר הַפְּלֵטָ֗ה הַנִּשְׁאֶ֤רֶת לָכֶם֙ מִן־הַבָּרָ֔ד וְאָכַל֙ אֶת־כָּל־הָעֵ֔ץ הַצֹּמֵ֥חַ לָכֶ֖ם מִן־הַשָּׂדֶֽה
5 And it will cover the eye of the land, and no one will be able to see the land,
and it will eat the remaining of what was secured, the residue for you from the hail, and it will eat every tree that grows for you from the field.
3e 4C 18
36
וּמָלְא֨וּ בָתֶּ֜יךָ וּבָתֵּ֣י כָל־עֲבָדֶיךָ֮ וּבָתֵּ֣י כָל־מִצְרַיִם֒ אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־רָא֤וּ אֲבֹתֶ֙יךָ֙ וַאֲב֣וֹת אֲבֹתֶ֔יךָ מִיּ֗וֹם הֱיוֹתָם֙ עַל־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה עַ֖ד הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה
וַיִּ֥פֶן וַיֵּצֵ֖א מֵעִ֥ם פַּרְעֹֽה
6 And they will fill your houses, and the houses of all your servants, and the houses of all Egypt, such as your fathers nor the fathers of your fathers have not seen from the day they were on the ground to this day.
And he faced about, and he went forth from Pharaoh.
3e 4C 50
10
וַיֹּאמְרוּ֩ עַבְדֵ֨י פַרְעֹ֜ה אֵלָ֗יו עַד־מָתַי֙ יִהְיֶ֨ה זֶ֥ה לָ֙נוּ֙ לְמוֹקֵ֔שׁ שַׁלַּח֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֲנָשִׁ֔ים וְיַֽעַבְד֖וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֑ם
הֲטֶ֣רֶם תֵּדַ֔ע כִּ֥י אָבְדָ֖ה מִצְרָֽיִם
7 And the servants of Pharaoh said to him, How long will be this be for us a trap? Set loose everyone and let them serve Yahweh their God.
Do you not yet know that Egypt is perished?
3e 4B 38
11
וַיּוּשַׁ֞ב אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֤ה וְאֶֽת־אַהֲרֹן֙ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֔ה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֔ם לְכ֥וּ עִבְד֖וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֑ם
מִ֥י וָמִ֖י הַהֹלְכִֽים
8 And Moses and Aaron were made to return to Pharaoh, and he said to them, Go. Serve Yahweh your God.
Who and who, are those who will go?
3e 4C 31
6
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר מֹשֶׁ֔ה בִּנְעָרֵ֥ינוּ וּבִזְקֵנֵ֖ינוּ נֵלֵ֑ךְ
בְּבָנֵ֨ינוּ וּבִבְנוֹתֵ֜נוּ בְּצֹאנֵ֤נוּ וּבִבְקָרֵ֙נוּ֙ נֵלֵ֔ךְ כִּ֥י חַג־יְהוָ֖ה לָֽנוּ
9 And Moses said, With our youths and with our elders we will go.
With our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds, we will go, because the feast of Yahweh is for us.
3e 4C 16
26
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם יְהִ֨י כֵ֤ן יְהוָה֙ עִמָּכֶ֔ם כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר אֲשַׁלַּ֥ח אֶתְכֶ֖ם וְאֶֽת־טַפְּכֶ֑ם
רְא֕וּ כִּ֥י רָעָ֖ה נֶ֥גֶד פְּנֵיכֶֽם
10 And he said to them, Let it be so that Yahweh is with you, in that I will set you loose and your little ones.
See that evil is in front of your face.
3d 4C 26
10
לֹ֣א כֵ֗ן לְכֽוּ־נָ֤א הַגְּבָרִים֙ וְעִבְד֣וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה כִּ֥י אֹתָ֖הּ אַתֶּ֣ם מְבַקְשִׁ֑ים
וַיְגָ֣רֶשׁ אֹתָ֔ם מֵאֵ֖ת פְּנֵ֥י פַרְעֹֽה
11 B (Not so.) Go now, you valiant, and serve Yahweh, for her you are seeking.
And he expelled them from the presence of Pharaoh.
3e 4C 21
11
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה נְטֵ֨ה יָדְךָ֜ עַל־אֶ֤רֶץ מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ בָּֽאַרְבֶּ֔ה וְיַ֖עַל עַל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם
וְיֹאכַל֙ אֶת־כָּל־עֵ֣שֶׂב הָאָ֔רֶץ אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר הִשְׁאִ֖יר הַבָּרָֽד
12 And Yahweh said to Moses, Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt for locust, that they ascend over the land of Egypt,
and eat every herb of the land, all that the hail left as residue.
3d 4C 29
19
וַיֵּ֨ט מֹשֶׁ֣ה אֶת־מַטֵּהוּ֮ עַל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַיִם֒ וַֽיהוָ֗ה נִהַ֤ג ר֥וּחַ קָדִים֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ כָּל־הַיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא וְכָל־הַלָּ֑יְלָה
הַבֹּ֣קֶר הָיָ֔ה וְר֙וּחַ֙ הַקָּדִ֔ים נָשָׂ֖א אֶת־הָאַרְבֶּֽה
13 And Moses stretched out his rod over the land of Egypt, and Yahweh drove a wind from the east in the land all that day, and all the night long.
There was the morning, and the wind from the east had supplied the locust.
3e 4C 34
17
וַיַּ֣עַל הָֽאַרְבֶּ֗ה עַ֚ל כָּל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיָּ֕נַח בְּכֹ֖ל גְּב֣וּל מִצְרָ֑יִם
כָּבֵ֣ד מְאֹ֔ד לְ֠פָנָיו לֹא־הָ֨יָה כֵ֤ן אַרְבֶּה֙ כָּמֹ֔הוּ וְאַחֲרָ֖יו לֹ֥א יִֽהְיֶה־כֵּֽן
14 And the locust ascended over all the land of Egypt, and rested within every border of Egypt.
Excessively glorious. Before it there was not such a locust like it, and after it neither will there be such.
3e 4C 22
23
וַיְכַ֞ס אֶת־עֵ֣ין כָּל־הָאָרֶץ֮ וַתֶּחְשַׁ֣ךְ הָאָרֶץ֒ וַיֹּ֜אכַל אֶת־כָּל־עֵ֣שֶׂב הָאָ֗רֶץ וְאֵת֙ כָּל־פְּרִ֣י הָעֵ֔ץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הוֹתִ֖יר הַבָּרָ֑ד
וְלֹא־נוֹתַ֨ר כָּל־יֶ֧רֶק בָּעֵ֛ץ וּבְעֵ֥שֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם
15 And it covered the eye of all the land, so the land was darkened, and it ate every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the tree, which the hail had left,
and there was not left any foliage in the tree, or in the herbs of the field, in all the land of Egypt.
3c 4B 38
21
וַיְמַהֵ֣ר פַּרְעֹ֔ה לִקְרֹ֖א לְמֹשֶׁ֣ה וּֽלְאַהֲרֹ֑ן
וַיֹּ֗אמֶר חָטָ֛אתִי לַיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֖ם וְלָכֶֽם
16 And swiftly Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron,
and he said, I have sinned to Yahweh your God, and to you.
3d 4B 14
15
וְעַתָּ֗ה שָׂ֣א נָ֤א חַטָּאתִי֙ אַ֣ךְ הַפַּ֔עַם וְהַעְתִּ֖ירוּ לַיהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֑ם
וְיָסֵר֙ מֵֽעָלַ֔י רַ֖ק אֶת־הַמָּ֥וֶת הַזֶּֽה
17 So now, bear please, my sin, but this one time, and petition to Yahweh your God,
that he put aside from me solely this death.
3e 4C 22
13
וַיֵּצֵ֖א מֵעִ֣ם פַּרְעֹ֑ה
וַיֶּעְתַּ֖ר אֶל־יְהוָֽה
18 And he went forth from Pharaoh,
and he petitioned to Yahweh.
3e 4B 7
6
וַיַּהֲפֹ֨ךְ יְהוָ֤ה רֽוּחַ־יָם֙ חָזָ֣ק מְאֹ֔ד וַיִּשָּׂא֙ אֶת־הָ֣אַרְבֶּ֔ה וַיִּתְקָעֵ֖הוּ יָ֣מָּה סּ֑וּף
לֹ֤א נִשְׁאַר֙ אַרְבֶּ֣ה אֶחָ֔ד בְּכֹ֖ל גְּב֥וּל מִצְרָֽיִם
19 And Yahweh changed the wind from the sea, very resolutely, and lifted up the locust, and sounded them toward the sea of reeds.
He did not leave a residue of one locust within any border of Egypt.
3e 4C 28
14
וַיְחַזֵּ֥ק יְהוָ֖ה אֶת־לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֑ה
וְלֹ֥א שִׁלַּ֖ח אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל פ
20 But Yahweh made the heart of Pharaoh resolute,
and he did not set loose the children of Israel.
3e 4B 9
11
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה נְטֵ֤ה יָֽדְךָ֙ עַל־הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וִ֥יהִי חֹ֖שֶׁךְ עַל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם
וְיָמֵ֖שׁ חֹֽשֶׁךְ
21 And Yahweh said to Moses, Stretch out your hand over the heavens. that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt,
that one may feel darkness.
3e 4C 26
5
וַיֵּ֥ט מֹשֶׁ֛ה אֶת־יָד֖וֹ עַל־הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם
וַיְהִ֧י חֹֽשֶׁךְ־אֲפֵלָ֛ה בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם שְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת יָמִֽים
22 And Moses stretched out his hand over the heavens,
and gloomy darkness happened in all the land of Egypt, three days.
3c 4A 12
18
לֹֽא־רָא֞וּ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־אָחִ֗יו וְלֹא־קָ֛מוּ אִ֥ישׁ מִתַּחְתָּ֖יו שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֑ים
וּֽלְכָל־בְּנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל הָ֥יָה א֖וֹר בְּמוֹשְׁבֹתָֽם
23 They did not see each his kin, and they did not arise, each from under itself, three days,
but for all the children of Israel, there was light in their settlements.
3c 4B 18
14
וַיִּקְרָ֨א פַרְעֹ֜ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לְכוּ֙ עִבְד֣וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה רַ֛ק צֹאנְכֶ֥ם וּבְקַרְכֶ֖ם יֻצָּ֑ג
גַּֽם־טַפְּכֶ֖ם יֵלֵ֥ךְ עִמָּכֶֽם
24 And Pharaoh called to Moses and he said, Go. Serve Yahweh but your flocks and your herds stay put.
Also your little ones will go with you.
3d 4B 26
8
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר מֹשֶׁ֔ה גַּם־אַתָּ֛ה תִּתֵּ֥ן בְּיָדֵ֖נוּ זְבָחִ֣ים וְעֹל֑וֹת
וְעָשִׂ֖ינוּ לַיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ
25 And Moses said, You also will give into our hands sacrifices and burnt offerings,
that we may make to Yahweh our God.
3d 4B 20
10
וְגַם־מִקְנֵ֜נוּ יֵלֵ֣ךְ עִמָּ֗נוּ לֹ֤א תִשָּׁאֵר֙ פַּרְסָ֔ה כִּ֚י מִמֶּ֣נּוּ נִקַּ֔ח לַעֲבֹ֖ד אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ
וַאֲנַ֣חְנוּ לֹֽא־נֵדַ֗ע מַֽה־נַּעֲבֹד֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה עַד־בֹּאֵ֖נוּ שָֽׁמָּה
26 And moreover, our acquisitions will go with us. Not a hoof will be residue, for from such we must take to serve Yahweh our God,
and we do not know with what we will serve Yahweh, until we come there.
3e 4C 32
19
וַיְחַזֵּ֥ק יְהוָ֖ה אֶת־לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֑ה
וְלֹ֥א אָבָ֖ה לְשַׁלְּחָֽם
27 But Yahweh made resolute the heart of Pharaoh,
and he did not consent to set them loose.
3e 4B 9
7
וַיֹּֽאמֶר־ל֥וֹ פַרְעֹ֖ה לֵ֣ךְ מֵעָלָ֑י
הִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֗ אֶל־תֹּ֙סֶף֙ רְא֣וֹת פָּנַ֔י כִּ֗י בְּי֛וֹם רְאֹתְךָ֥ פָנַ֖י תָּמֽוּת
28 And Pharaoh said to him, Go from me.
Keep watch for yourself. Not again you will see my face, for in the day you see my face, you die.
3d 4B 10
22
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר מֹשֶׁ֖ה כֵּ֣ן דִּבַּ֑רְתָּ
לֹא־אֹסִ֥ף ע֖וֹד רְא֥וֹת פָּנֶֽיךָ פ
29 And Moses said, So you have spoken.
Not will I again any more see your face.
3e 4B 9
9