|1 Kings 12||Fn||Min||Max||Syll|
|וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ רְחַבְעָ֖ם שְׁכֶ֑ם |
כִּ֥י שְׁכֶ֛ם בָּ֥א כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְהַמְלִ֥יךְ אֹתֽוֹ
|1||And Rehoboam went to Shechem, |
for to Shechem, all Israel had come to make him king.
|וַיְהִ֞י כִּשְׁמֹ֣עַ ׀ יָרָבְעָ֣ם בֶּן־נְבָ֗ט וְהוּא֙ עוֹדֶ֣נּוּ בְמִצְרַ֔יִם אֲשֶׁ֣ר בָּרַ֔ח מִפְּנֵ֖י הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹ֑ה |
וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב יָרָבְעָ֖ם בְּמִצְרָֽיִם
|2||And it was when Jeroboam child of Nebat heard, (and he was yet in Egypt, where he ran away from the presence of the king Solomon, |
and Jeroboam settled in Egypt),
|וַֽיִּשְׁלְחוּ֙ וַיִּקְרְאוּ־ל֔וֹ וַיָּבֹ֥א יָרָבְעָ֖ם וְכָל־קְהַ֣ל יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל |
וַֽיְדַבְּר֔וּ אֶל־רְחַבְעָ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר
|3||that they sent and called to him, and Jeroboam came and all the congregation of Israel, |
and spoke to Rehoboam, saying,
|אָבִ֖יךָ הִקְשָׁ֣ה אֶת־עֻלֵּ֑נוּ |
וְאַתָּ֡ה עַתָּ֣ה הָקֵל֩ מֵעֲבֹדַ֨ת אָבִ֜יךָ הַקָּשָׁ֗ה וּמֵעֻלּ֧וֹ הַכָּבֵ֛ד אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥ן עָלֵ֖ינוּ וְנַעַבְדֶֽךָּ
|4||Your father hardened our shackles. |
So you now lighten the service your father hardened, and his heavy shackles that he assigned to us, and we will serve you.
|וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם לְכ֥וּ עֹ֛ד שְׁלֹשָׁ֥ה יָמִ֖ים וְשׁ֣וּבוּ אֵלָ֑י |
|5||And he said to them, Go for three days, then return to me. |
And the people went.
|וַיִּוָּעַ֞ץ הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ רְחַבְעָ֗ם אֶת־הַזְּקֵנִים֙ אֲשֶׁר־הָי֣וּ עֹמְדִ֗ים אֶת־פְּנֵי֙ שְׁלֹמֹ֣ה אָבִ֔יו בִּֽהְיֹת֥וֹ חַ֖י לֵאמֹ֑ר |
אֵ֚יךְ אַתֶּ֣ם נֽוֹעָצִ֔ים לְהָשִׁ֥יב אֶת־הָֽעָם־הַזֶּ֖ה דָּבָֽר
|6||And king Rehoboam took counsel with the elders who had stood before Solomon his father when he was alive, and he said, |
How do you advise replying with a word to this people?
|וַיְדַבְּר֨וּ אֵלָ֜יו לֵאמֹ֗ר אִם־הַ֠יּוֹם תִּֽהְיֶה־עֶ֜בֶד לָעָ֤ם הַזֶּה֙ וַֽעֲבַדְתָּ֔ם וַעֲנִיתָ֕ם וְדִבַּרְתָּ֥ אֲלֵיהֶ֖ם דְּבָרִ֣ים טוֹבִ֑ים |
וְהָי֥וּ לְךָ֛ עֲבָדִ֖ים כָּל־הַיָּמִֽים
|7||And they spoke to him saying, If today you will be a servant of this people, and will serve them and answer them, and speak to them good things, |
then they will be your servants every day.
|וַֽיַּעֲזֹ֛ב אֶת־עֲצַ֥ת הַזְּקֵנִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְעָצֻ֑הוּ |
וַיִּוָּעַ֗ץ אֶת־הַיְלָדִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר גָּדְל֣וּ אִתּ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָעֹמְדִ֖ים לְפָנָֽיו
|8||But he forsook the counsel of the elders with which they advised him, |
and he took advice from the male peers that promoted him who had standing in his presence.
|וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם מָ֚ה אַתֶּ֣ם נֽוֹעָצִ֔ים וְנָשִׁ֥יב דָּבָ֖ר אֶת־הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֑ה |
אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבְּר֤וּ אֵלַי֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הָקֵל֙ מִן־הָעֹ֔ל אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥ן אָבִ֖יךָ עָלֵֽינוּ
|9||And he said to them, What you do advise that we may reply with a word to this people, |
who have spoken to me saying, Lighten the shackle that your father assigned to us.
|וַיְדַבְּר֣וּ אֵלָ֗יו הַיְלָדִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר גָּדְל֣וּ אִתּוֹ֮ לֵאמֹר֒ כֹּֽה־תֹאמַ֣ר לָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֡ה אֲשֶׁר֩ דִּבְּר֨וּ אֵלֶ֜יךָ לֵאמֹ֗ר אָבִ֙יךָ֙ הִכְבִּ֣יד אֶת־עֻלֵּ֔נוּ וְאַתָּ֖ה הָקֵ֣ל מֵעָלֵ֑ינוּ |
כֹּ֚ה תְּדַבֵּ֣ר אֲלֵיהֶ֔ם קָֽטָנִּ֥י עָבָ֖ה מִמָּתְנֵ֥י אָבִֽי
|10||And they spoke to him, the male peers that promoted him, saying, Thus you say to this people who have spoken to you, saying, Your father made our shackles heavy so you lighten for us. |
Thus you will speak to them, My wee is thicker than the loins of my father.
|וְעַתָּ֗ה אָבִי֙ הֶעְמִ֤יס עֲלֵיכֶם֙ עֹ֣ל כָּבֵ֔ד וַאֲנִ֖י אוֹסִ֣יף עַֽל־עֻלְּכֶ֑ם |
אָבִ֗י יִסַּ֤ר אֶתְכֶם֙ בַּשּׁוֹטִ֔ים וַאֲנִ֕י אֲיַסֵּ֥ר אֶתְכֶ֖ם בָּעַקְרַבִּֽים
|11||And now my father has laded on you a heavy shackle, and I, I will add to your shackle. |
My father chastened you with scourges, and I, I will chasten you with scorpions.
|וַיָּב֨וֹא יָרָבְעָ֧ם וְכָל־הָעָ֛ם אֶל־רְחַבְעָ֖ם בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁ֑י |
כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֤ר הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר שׁ֥וּבוּ אֵלַ֖י בַּיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁלִישִֽׁי
|12||And Jeroboam and all the people came in to Rehoboam on the third day, |
as the king had spoken, saying, Return to me on the third day.
|וַיַּ֧עַן הַמֶּ֛לֶךְ אֶת־הָעָ֖ם קָשָׁ֑ה |
וַֽיַּעֲזֹ֛ב אֶת־עֲצַ֥ת הַזְּקֵנִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְעָצֻֽהוּ
|13||And the king answered the people with intransigence, |
and he forsook the counsel of the elders with which they had advised him.
|וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר אֲלֵיהֶ֗ם כַּעֲצַ֤ת הַיְלָדִים֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר אָבִי֙ הִכְבִּ֣יד אֶֽת־עֻלְּכֶ֔ם וַאֲנִ֖י אֹסִ֣יף עַֽל־עֻלְּכֶ֑ם |
אָבִ֗י יִסַּ֤ר אֶתְכֶם֙ בַּשּׁוֹטִ֔ים וַאֲנִ֕י אֲיַסֵּ֥ר אֶתְכֶ֖ם בָּעַקְרַבִּֽים
|14||And he spoke to them according to the advice of the male peers, saying, My father made your shackle heavy and I, I will add to your shackle. |
My father chastened you with scourges and I, I will chasten you with scorpions.
|וְלֹֽא־שָׁמַ֥ע הַמֶּ֖לֶךְ אֶל־הָעָ֑ם |
כִּֽי־הָיְתָ֤ה סִבָּה֙ מֵעִ֣ם יְהוָ֔ה לְמַ֜עַן הָקִ֣ים אֶת־דְּבָר֗וֹ אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֤ר יְהוָה֙ בְּיַד֙ אֲחִיָּ֣ה הַשִּׁילֹנִ֔י אֶל־יָרָבְעָ֖ם בֶּן־נְבָֽט
|15||So the king did not hear the people, |
for the context was from Yahweh, so that he might uphold his word that Yahweh spoke by the hand of Achiyah the Shilonite to Jeroboam child of Nebat.
|וַיַּ֣רְא כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל כִּ֠י לֹֽא־שָׁמַ֣ע הַמֶּלֶךְ֮ אֲלֵיהֶם֒ וַיָּשִׁ֣בוּ הָעָ֣ם אֶת־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ דָּבָ֣ר ׀ לֵאמֹ֡ר מַה־לָּנוּ֩ חֵ֨לֶק בְּדָוִ֜ד וְלֹֽא־נַחֲלָ֣ה בְּבֶן־יִשַׁ֗י לְאֹהָלֶ֙יךָ֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל עַתָּ֕ה רְאֵ֥ה בֵיתְךָ֖ דָּוִ֑ד |
וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לְאֹהָלָֽיו
|16||And all Israel saw that the king did not pay heed to them, and the people replied to the king a word, saying, What is our share in David? And no inheritance in the child of Jesse. To your tents Israel. Now see to your house, David. |
And Israel went to its tents.
|וּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הַיֹּשְׁבִ֖ים בְּעָרֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֑ה |
וַיִּמְלֹ֥ךְ עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם רְחַבְעָֽם
|17||But the children of Israel, those inhabiting in the cities of Judah, |
... and Rehoboam reigned over them.
|וַיִּשְׁלַ֞ח הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ רְחַבְעָ֗ם אֶת־אֲדֹרָם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עַל־הַמַּ֔ס וַיִּרְגְּמ֨וּ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֥ל בּ֛וֹ אֶ֖בֶן וַיָּמֹ֑ת |
וְהַמֶּ֣לֶךְ רְחַבְעָ֗ם הִתְאַמֵּץ֙ לַעֲל֣וֹת בַּמֶּרְכָּבָ֔ה לָנ֖וּס יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם
|18||And the king Rehoboam sent Adoram, who was over the tax, and all Israel crowded him with a stone and he died. |
Then the king Rehoboam made sure to get himself up into a chariot to withdraw to Jerusalem.
|וַיִּפְשְׁע֤וּ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ בְּבֵ֣ית דָּוִ֔ד עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה||19||So Israel transgressed, in the house of David, to this day.||3e||4C||16|
|וַיְהִ֞י כִּשְׁמֹ֤עַ כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ כִּֽי־שָׁ֣ב יָרָבְעָ֔ם וַֽיִּשְׁלְח֗וּ וַיִּקְרְא֤וּ אֹתוֹ֙ אֶל־הָ֣עֵדָ֔ה וַיַּמְלִ֥יכוּ אֹת֖וֹ עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל |
לֹ֤א הָיָה֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י בֵית־דָּוִ֔ד זוּלָתִ֥י שֵֽׁבֶט־יְהוּדָ֖ה לְבַדּֽוֹ
|20||And it happened as all Israel heard that Jeroboam had returned, that they sent and called him to the assembly, and they made him king over all Israel. |
None there was who followed the house of David, except the sceptre of Judah alone.
|וַיָּבֹ֣א רְחַבְעָם֮ יְרוּשָׁלִַם֒ וַיַּקְהֵל֩ אֶת־כָּל־בֵּ֨ית יְהוּדָ֜ה וְאֶת־שֵׁ֣בֶט בִּנְיָמִ֗ן מֵאָ֨ה וּשְׁמֹנִ֥ים אֶ֛לֶף בָּח֖וּר עֹשֵׂ֣ה מִלְחָמָ֑ה |
לְהִלָּחֵם֙ עִם־בֵּ֣ית יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לְהָשִׁיב֙ אֶת־הַמְּלוּכָ֔ה לִרְחַבְעָ֖ם בֶּן־שְׁלֹמֹֽה
|21||And Rehoboam entered Jerusalem and convened all the house of Judah and the sceptre of Benjamin, a hundred eighty thousand chosen, to make war, |
to fight with the house of Israel, to restore the kingdom to Rehoboam, child of Solomon.
|וַיְהִי֙ דְּבַ֣ר הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים אֶל־שְׁמַעְיָ֥ה אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים לֵאמֹֽר||22||But the word of God happened to Shemaiah the man of God, saying,||3e||4B||19|
|אֱמֹ֗ר אֶל־רְחַבְעָ֤ם בֶּן־שְׁלֹמֹה֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֔ה וְאֶל־כָּל־בֵּ֥ית יְהוּדָ֖ה וּבִנְיָמִ֑ין |
וְיֶ֥תֶר הָעָ֖ם לֵאמֹֽר
|23||Say to Rehoboam, child of Solomon, king of Judah, and to all the house of Judah and Benjamin, |
and the remainder of the people, saying,
|כֹּ֣ה אָמַ֣ר יְהוָ֡ה לֹֽא־תַעֲלוּ֩ וְלֹא־תִלָּ֨חֲמ֜וּן עִם־אֲחֵיכֶ֣ם בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל שׁ֚וּבוּ אִ֣ישׁ לְבֵית֔וֹ כִּ֧י מֵאִתִּ֛י נִהְיָ֖ה הַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֑ה |
וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ֙ אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר יְהוָ֔ה וַיָּשֻׁ֥בוּ לָלֶ֖כֶת כִּדְבַ֥ר יְהוָֽה
|24||B||Thus says Yahweh, Do not go up and do not fight with your kin, the children of Israel. Return each to his own house, for from me is this matter, |
When they heard the word of Yahweh, then they turned to go, according to the word of Yahweh.
|וַיִּ֨בֶן יָרָבְעָ֧ם אֶת־שְׁכֶ֛ם בְּהַ֥ר אֶפְרַ֖יִם וַיֵּ֣שֶׁב בָּ֑הּ |
וַיֵּצֵ֣א מִשָּׁ֔ם וַיִּ֖בֶן אֶת־פְּנוּאֵֽל
|25||And Jeroboam built Shechem in mount Ephraim and settled in it, |
and he went out from there and built Penuel.
|וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יָרָבְעָ֖ם בְּלִבּ֑וֹ |
עַתָּ֛ה תָּשׁ֥וּב הַמַּמְלָכָ֖ה לְבֵ֥ית דָּוִֽד
|26||And Jeroboam said in his heart, |
now the kingdom will revert to the house of David.
|אִֽם־יַעֲלֶ֣ה ׀ הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֗ה לַעֲשׂ֨וֹת זְבָחִ֤ים בְּבֵית־יְהוָה֙ בִּיר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם וְ֠שָׁב לֵ֣ב הָעָ֤ם הַזֶּה֙ אֶל־אֲדֹ֣נֵיהֶ֔ם אֶל־רְחַבְעָ֖ם מֶ֣לֶךְ יְהוּדָ֑ה |
וַהֲרָגֻ֕נִי וְשָׁ֖בוּ אֶל־רְחַבְעָ֥ם מֶֽלֶךְ־יְהוּדָֽה
|27||If this people go up to do offerings in the house of Yahweh in Jerusalem, then the heart of this people will return to their master, to Rehoboam, king of Judah, |
and they will slay me and return to Rehoboam king of Judah.
|וַיִּוָּעַ֣ץ הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַיַּ֕עַשׂ שְׁנֵ֖י עֶגְלֵ֣י זָהָ֑ב |
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם רַב־לָכֶם֙ מֵעֲל֣וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַ֔ם הִנֵּ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֶעֱל֖וּךָ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם
|28||And the king took counsel and he constructed two calves of gold. |
And he said to them, Too much it is for you to go up to Jerusalem. Behold your gods, O Israel, who brought you up from the land of Egypt.
|וַיָּ֥שֶׂם אֶת־הָאֶחָ֖ד בְּבֵֽית־אֵ֑ל |
וְאֶת־הָאֶחָ֖ד נָתַ֥ן בְּדָֽן
|29||And he set the one in Bethel, |
and the other he assigned in Dan.
|וַיְהִ֛י הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּ֖ה לְחַטָּ֑את |
וַיֵּלְכ֥וּ הָעָ֛ם לִפְנֵ֥י הָאֶחָ֖ד עַד־דָּֽן
|30||And this matter became sin, |
and the people went into the presence of the one to Dan.
|וַיַּ֖עַשׂ אֶת־בֵּ֣ית בָּמ֑וֹת |
וַיַּ֤עַשׂ כֹּֽהֲנִים֙ מִקְצ֣וֹת הָעָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־הָי֖וּ מִבְּנֵ֥י לֵוִֽי
|31||And he constructed a house of high places, |
and he made priests from the magistrates of the people who were not from the children of Levi.
|וַיַּ֣עַשׂ יָרָבְעָ֣ם ׀ חָ֡ג בַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשְּׁמִינִ֣י בַּחֲמִשָּֽׁה־עָשָׂר֩ י֨וֹם ׀ לַחֹ֜דֶשׁ כֶּחָ֣ג ׀ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּיהוּדָ֗ה וַיַּ֙עַל֙ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֔חַ כֵּ֤ן עָשָׂה֙ בְּבֵֽית־אֵ֔ל לְזַבֵּ֖חַ לָעֲגָלִ֣ים אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֑ה |
וְהֶעֱמִיד֙ בְּבֵ֣ית אֵ֔ל אֶת־כֹּהֲנֵ֥י הַבָּמ֖וֹת אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָֽׂה
|32||And Jeroboam made a festive sacrifice, in the eighth new moon on the fifteenth day of the month, like the feast that is in Judah, and he offered on the altar. So he did in Bethel, offering to the calves that he had made. |
And he installed in Bethel the priests of the high places that he made.
|וַיַּ֜עַל עַֽל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֣חַ ׀ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֣ה בְּבֵֽית־אֵ֗ל בַּחֲמִשָּׁ֨ה עָשָׂ֥ר יוֹם֙ בַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הַשְּׁמִינִ֔י בַּחֹ֖דֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־בָּדָ֣א מִלִּבּ֑וֹ |
וַיַּ֤עַשׂ חָג֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיַּ֥עַל עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּ֖חַ לְהַקְטִֽיר
|33||And he offered on the altar that he had made in Bethel, on the fifteenth day in the eighth new moon, in a new moon that he had contrived from his own heart. |
And he made a festive sacrifice for the children of Israel, and he offered on the altar to burn incense.
What did the father do to the people? Chasten, warn, chastise, tutor, mentor, bewilder? I have not used chastise anywhere, but as I look at the word יסר and its usage, it seems much bigger than the idea of punishment or forced labour.
My real problem with glosses is their usage and the prejudice I bring to them. And the problem is perceiving the tone, almost a musical issue. I suppose too, it depends on whether I trust the subject who is administering the governance, whether it is a mentoring or a bewildering. Is this word in the domain of trouble-bound (i.e. punishment) or of promise-teaching? Or am I simply arranging glosses in the domains of my own biases? Perhaps my domains must be assigned to the gloss in its context. Yes, I have absorbed something of the principles of exegesis, but the contexts (סבב) are so wide... In this case, it is from Yahweh!
It does seem clear, however, that the son will not be a better ruler than the father. (We have met such people, I am sure, who are advised by their male peers.) And though the father's reign has been romanticized, he was not very good for the people either. Do you suppose that we deserve the rulers we get?
What does Yahweh do? When the word pair למען הקים occurs, is Yahweh upholding, placing, or raising up the object? A translator has to chose one. Is it the same one in each instance? Not necessarily. Though I try to be reasonable, my decision may vary depending on the object. See 1 Kings 2:4 raise up his word that he spoke of me, 12:15 uphold his word, 2 Kings 23:24 uphold the words of instruction, Deuteronomy 8:18 uphold his covenant, 9:5 place the matter, 29:12 uphold you, Jeremiah 11:5 place the oath. Perhaps I should change 1 Kings 2:4?
What does Israel do? They transgressed. They did not rebel. Here there is a value judgment from the author which I think must be preserved. Here I feel the translator should not choose a synonym in the guest language.
What did the army of Judah and Benjamin not do? They actually didn't go to war. Does that make Judah and Benjamin obedient (in this case)?