Thursday, August 31, 2017

Exodus 23

Here in this chapter there are a few new things. It has been rare if at all to see נפשׁ used as a verb. Here it is in verse 23. And a word everyone knows, forsake עזב appears also to have a homonym assist. This is quite a reversal. How does forsaking morph into assistance? Is it an indication of word usage changing over time? The problem is not without discussion - see here.

פגע likewise took on a gloss that was unlike what I had used so far. And I saw that I had misread the word in previously posted chapters (updated) and I was able to remove an exception from my table of exceptions.

In verse 14 the body part, feet, has become pilgrimages. It is curious that the repetition in verse 17 has the expected word times. You can hear the cognate of חג with the Islamic pilgrimage of the Hajj.

Verse 15 repeats the words of Exodus 34:20 with its unexpected change in person.

After reading and writing this chapter, I see that the remaining chapters in the group known as The Book of the Covenant have been raised up in the percentages guessed. The other Exodus chapters have unchanged percentages (measured to 1 decimal place). So this is an objective indication that these 4 chapters are a unit.
Chapter Verses Pct.
Exodus 22 30 0.35
Exodus 21 37 0.34

Exodus 23 Fn Min Max Syll
לֹ֥א תִשָּׂ֖א שֵׁ֣מַע שָׁ֑וְא
אַל־תָּ֤שֶׁת יָֽדְךָ֙ עִם־רָשָׁ֔ע לִהְיֹ֖ת עֵ֥ד חָמָֽס
1 f You will not bear a report worth nothing.
You will not set your hand with one who is wicked to be a violent witness.
3e 4C 6
13
לֹֽא־תִהְיֶ֥ה אַחֲרֵֽי־רַבִּ֖ים לְרָעֹ֑ת
וְלֹא־תַעֲנֶ֣ה עַל־רִ֗ב לִנְטֹ֛ת אַחֲרֵ֥י רַבִּ֖ים לְהַטֹּֽת
2 You will not follow the many to do evil,
and you will not answer over a dispute to bend, following the many who bend.
3d 4B 10
16
וְדָ֕ל לֹ֥א תֶהְדַּ֖ר בְּרִיבֽוֹ 3 And one who is weak, you will not honour in its dispute. 3e 3g 8
כִּ֣י תִפְגַּ֞ע שׁ֧וֹר אֹֽיִבְךָ֛ א֥וֹ חֲמֹר֖וֹ תֹּעֶ֑ה
הָשֵׁ֥ב תְּשִׁיבֶ֖נּוּ לֽוֹ
4 B If you come across a bull of your enemy or his ass wandering,
you will return it to him.
3c 4B 13
7
כִּֽי־תִרְאֶ֞ה חֲמ֣וֹר שֹׂנַאֲךָ֗ רֹבֵץ֙ תַּ֣חַת מַשָּׂא֔וֹ וְחָדַלְתָּ֖ מֵעֲזֹ֣ב ל֑וֹ
עָזֹ֥ב תַּעֲזֹ֖ב עִמּֽוֹ
5 When you see an ass of one who hates you stressed under its load, and you would refrain from assisting it,
you will assist with it.
3e 4B 24
7
לֹ֥א תַטֶּ֛ה מִשְׁפַּ֥ט אֶבְיֹנְךָ֖ בְּרִיבֽוֹ 6 f You will not bend judgment of your needy in its dispute. 3d 3g 11
מִדְּבַר־שֶׁ֖קֶר תִּרְחָ֑ק
וְנָקִ֤י וְצַדִּיק֙ אַֽל־תַּהֲרֹ֔ג כִּ֥י לֹא־אַצְדִּ֖יק רָשָֽׁע
7 From speaking false, you will be distant,
and one who is innocent or righteous, you will not slay, for I will not justify wickedness.
3e 4C 6
16
וְשֹׁ֖חַד לֹ֣א תִקָּ֑ח
כִּ֤י הַשֹּׁ֙חַד֙ יְעַוֵּ֣ר פִּקְחִ֔ים וִֽיסַלֵּ֖ף דִּבְרֵ֥י צַדִּיקִֽים
8 And a bribe you will not take,
for a bribe blinds the sighted, and undermines the words of the righteous.
3e 4C 6
17
וְגֵ֖ר לֹ֣א תִלְחָ֑ץ
וְאַתֶּ֗ם יְדַעְתֶּם֙ אֶת־נֶ֣פֶשׁ הַגֵּ֔ר כִּֽי־גֵרִ֥ים הֱיִיתֶ֖ם בְּאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם
9 And a guest, you will not restrict,
for you yourselves know what it is to be the guest, for guests you were in the land of Egypt.
3e 4B 5
22
וְשֵׁ֥שׁ שָׁנִ֖ים תִּזְרַ֣ע אֶת־אַרְצֶ֑ךָ
וְאָסַפְתָּ֖ אֶת־תְּבוּאָתָֽהּ
10 And six years you will sow your land,
and gather its revenue.
3e 4B 10
9
וְהַשְּׁבִיעִ֞ת תִּשְׁמְטֶ֣נָּה וּנְטַשְׁתָּ֗הּ וְאָֽכְלוּ֙ אֶבְיֹנֵ֣י עַמֶּ֔ךָ וְיִתְרָ֕ם תֹּאכַ֖ל חַיַּ֣ת הַשָּׂדֶ֑ה
כֵּֽן־תַּעֲשֶׂ֥ה לְכַרְמְךָ֖ לְזֵיתֶֽךָ
11 But the seventh you will remit it, and you will abandon it, and the needy of your people will eat and their surplus, the animals of the field will eat.
So you will deal for your vineyard, for your olive.
3e 4B 30
12
שֵׁ֤שֶׁת יָמִים֙ תַּעֲשֶׂ֣ה מַעֲשֶׂ֔יךָ וּבַיּ֥וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֖י תִּשְׁבֹּ֑ת
לְמַ֣עַן יָנ֗וּחַ שֽׁוֹרְךָ֙ וַחֲמֹרֶ֔ךָ וְיִנָּפֵ֥שׁ בֶּן־אֲמָתְךָ֖ וְהַגֵּֽר
12 C Six days you will do your deeds and on the seventh day you will cease,
so that your bull and your ass will rest, and the child of your maidservant and the guest will regroup.
3e 4C 19
24
וּבְכֹ֛ל אֲשֶׁר־אָמַ֥רְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶ֖ם תִּשָּׁמֵ֑רוּ
וְשֵׁ֨ם אֱלֹהִ֤ים אֲחֵרִים֙ לֹ֣א תַזְכִּ֔ירוּ לֹ֥א יִשָּׁמַ֖ע עַל־פִּֽיךָ
13 And in all that I have said to you, keep watch,
and the name of other gods you will not remember, nor let it be heard by your mouth.
3d 4C 14
19
שָׁלֹ֣שׁ רְגָלִ֔ים תָּחֹ֥ג לִ֖י בַּשָּׁנָֽה 14 Three pilgrimages you will make as festival for me in the year, 3e 4B 11
אֶת־חַ֣ג הַמַּצּוֹת֮ תִּשְׁמֹר֒ שִׁבְעַ֣ת יָמִים֩ תֹּאכַ֨ל מַצּ֜וֹת כַּֽאֲשֶׁ֣ר צִוִּיתִ֗ךָ לְמוֹעֵד֙ חֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽאָבִ֔יב כִּי־ב֖וֹ יָצָ֣אתָ מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם
וְלֹא־יֵרָא֥וּ פָנַ֖י רֵיקָֽם
15 The feast of unleavened bread you will keep. Seven days you will eat unleavened bread as I have commanded you, at the appointed time in the month of Abib, for in it you came forth from Egypt,
and they will not appear before me empty.
3e 4B 38
8
וְחַ֤ג הַקָּצִיר֙ בִּכּוּרֵ֣י מַעֲשֶׂ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּזְרַ֖ע בַּשָּׂדֶ֑ה
וְחַ֤ג הָֽאָסִף֙ בְּצֵ֣את הַשָּׁנָ֔ה בְּאָסְפְּךָ֥ אֶֽת־מַעֲשֶׂ֖יךָ מִן־הַשָּׂדֶֽה
16 And the feast of the harvest, the first ripe fruit of your doings, that you sowed in the field,
and the feast of the ingathering in the going out of the year, when you gather your doings from the field.
3e 4C 19
23
שָׁלֹ֥שׁ פְּעָמִ֖ים בַּשָּׁנָ֑ה
יֵרָאֶה֙ כָּל־זְכ֣וּרְךָ֔ אֶל־פְּנֵ֖י הָאָדֹ֥ן ׀ יְהוָֽה
17 Three times in the year,
your every male will appear before the Lord Yahweh.
3e 4B 8
15
לֹֽא־תִזְבַּ֥ח עַל־חָמֵ֖ץ דַּם־זִבְחִ֑י
וְלֹֽא־יָלִ֥ין חֵֽלֶב־חַגִּ֖י עַד־בֹּֽקֶר
18 You will not offer with leaven the blood of my offerings,
and the gross fat of my festive sacrifices will not bide until morning.
3e 4A 9
10
רֵאשִׁ֗ית בִּכּוּרֵי֙ אַדְמָ֣תְךָ֔ תָּבִ֕יא בֵּ֖ית יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ
לֹֽא־תְבַשֵּׁ֥ל גְּדִ֖י בַּחֲלֵ֥ב אִמּֽוֹ
19 The first of the first ripe fruit of your ground you will bring to the house of Yahweh your God.
You will not boil a male kid in the milk of its mother.
3e 4B 17
11
הִנֵּ֨ה אָנֹכִ֜י שֹׁלֵ֤חַ מַלְאָךְ֙ לְפָנֶ֔יךָ לִשְׁמָרְךָ֖ בַּדָּ֑רֶךְ
וְלַהֲבִ֣יאֲךָ֔ אֶל־הַמָּק֖וֹם אֲשֶׁ֥ר הֲכִנֹֽתִי
20 Behold I myself will send a messenger before you to keep you in the way,
and to bring you to the place that I have prepared.
3e 4C 20
16
הִשָּׁ֧מֶר מִפָּנָ֛יו וּשְׁמַ֥ע בְּקֹל֖וֹ אַל־תַּמֵּ֣ר בּ֑וֹ
כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יִשָּׂא֙ לְפִשְׁעֲכֶ֔ם כִּ֥י שְׁמִ֖י בְּקִרְבּֽוֹ
21 Keep watch before his face, and hear with his voice.
Do not be bitter by him for he will not bear for you to transgress, for my name is within him.
3c 4C 15
14
כִּ֣י אִם־שָׁמֹ֤עַ תִּשְׁמַע֙ בְּקֹל֔וֹ וְעָשִׂ֕יתָ כֹּ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֲדַבֵּ֑ר
וְאָֽיַבְתִּי֙ אֶת־אֹ֣יְבֶ֔יךָ וְצַרְתִּ֖י אֶת־צֹרְרֶֽיךָ
22 B But if to hear you will hear with his voice, and do all that I will speak,
then I will be enemy with your enemies, and I will be adversary with your adversaries.
3e 4C 20
15
כִּֽי־יֵלֵ֣ךְ מַלְאָכִי֮ לְפָנֶיךָ֒ וֶהֱבִֽיאֲךָ֗ אֶל־הָֽאֱמֹרִי֙ וְהַ֣חִתִּ֔י וְהַפְּרִזִּי֙ וְהַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֔י הַחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִ֑י
וְהִכְחַדְתִּֽיו
23 For my messenger will go before you, and will bring you to the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Canaanite, the Hivite and the Jebusite,
and I will conceal them.
3e 4B 39
4
לֹֽא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֤ה לֵאלֹֽהֵיהֶם֙ וְלֹ֣א תָֽעָבְדֵ֔ם וְלֹ֥א תַעֲשֶׂ֖ה כְּמַֽעֲשֵׂיהֶ֑ם
כִּ֤י הָרֵס֙ תְּהָ֣רְסֵ֔ם וְשַׁבֵּ֥ר תְּשַׁבֵּ֖ר מַצֵּבֹתֵיהֶֽם
24 You will not worship their God, and you will not serve them and you will not do as they do,
for overthrowing you will overthrow, and shattering you will shatter their monuments.
3e 4C 24
17
וַעֲבַדְתֶּ֗ם אֵ֚ת יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם וּבֵרַ֥ךְ אֶֽת־לַחְמְךָ֖ וְאֶת־מֵימֶ֑יךָ
וַהֲסִרֹתִ֥י מַחֲלָ֖ה מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ
25 But you will serve Yahweh your God, and he will bless your bread and your waters,
and I will put aside illness from within you.
3e 4C 23
12
לֹ֥א תִהְיֶ֛ה מְשַׁכֵּלָ֥ה וַעֲקָרָ֖ה בְּאַרְצֶ֑ךָ
אֶת־מִסְפַּ֥ר יָמֶ֖יךָ אֲמַלֵּֽא
26 f There will not be bereaved or barren female in your land.
The count of your days I will fulfill.
3d 4A 15
9
אֶת־אֵֽימָתִי֙ אֲשַׁלַּ֣ח לְפָנֶ֔יךָ וְהַמֹּתִי֙ אֶת־כָּל־הָעָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר תָּבֹ֖א בָּהֶ֑ם
וְנָתַתִּ֧י אֶת־כָּל־אֹיְבֶ֛יךָ אֵלֶ֖יךָ עֹֽרֶף
27 My horrors I will send out before you, and I will confuse all the people to whom you will come,
and I will give the scruff of all your enemies to you.
3c 4B 25
14
וְשָׁלַחְתִּ֥י אֶת־הַצִּרְעָ֖ה לְפָנֶ֑יךָ
וְגֵרְשָׁ֗ה אֶת־הַחִוִּ֧י אֶת־הַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֛י וְאֶת־הַחִתִּ֖י מִלְּפָנֶֽיךָ
28 And I will send the hornet before you,
and I will expel the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite from your presence.
3c 4A 12
21
לֹ֧א אֲגָרְשֶׁ֛נּוּ מִפָּנֶ֖יךָ בְּשָׁנָ֣ה אֶחָ֑ת
פֶּן־תִּהְיֶ֤ה הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ שְׁמָמָ֔ה וְרַבָּ֥ה עָלֶ֖יךָ חַיַּ֥ת הַשָּׂדֶֽה
29 c I will not expel them from your presence in the first year,
lest the land be desolate, and over you the animals of the field increase.
3c 4C 14
20
מְעַ֥ט מְעַ֛ט אֲגָרְשֶׁ֖נּוּ מִפָּנֶ֑יךָ
עַ֚ד אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּפְרֶ֔ה וְנָחַלְתָּ֖ אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ
30 A few by a few I will expel them from your presence,
until you are fruitful and inherit the land.
3d 4C 12
13
וְשַׁתִּ֣י אֶת־גְּבֻלְךָ֗ מִיַּם־סוּף֙ וְעַד־יָ֣ם פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וּמִמִּדְבָּ֖ר עַד־הַנָּהָ֑ר
כִּ֣י ׀ אֶתֵּ֣ן בְּיֶדְכֶ֗ם אֵ֚ת יֹשְׁבֵ֣י הָאָ֔רֶץ וְגֵרַשְׁתָּ֖מוֹ מִפָּנֶֽיךָ
31 And I will set your borders from the sea of reeds and to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness to the river,
for I will give into your hand the inhabitants of the land, and you will expel them from your presence.
3e 4C 24
21
לֹֽא־תִכְרֹ֥ת לָהֶ֛ם וְלֵאלֹֽהֵיהֶ֖ם בְּרִֽית 32 You will not cut, for them or for their gods, a covenant. 3d 3g 12
לֹ֤א יֵשְׁבוּ֙ בְּאַרְצְךָ֔ פֶּן־יַחֲטִ֥יאוּ אֹתְךָ֖ לִ֑י
כִּ֤י תַעֲבֹד֙ אֶת־אֱלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם כִּֽי־יִהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֖ לְמוֹקֵֽשׁ
33 C They will not settle in your land lest they make you to sin against me,
if you serve their God, for it will be for you a trap.
3e 4C 15
17