Saturday, August 26, 2017

Proverbs 28

Four chapters left of poetry after this one. The words here are continually perplexing. The perplexity is made worse because of my rigid concordance rules. Unless the language changed between writing these and other sections of Scripture, (and it might well have), דל is weak, not poor. Yes it is used in contrast to rich here, but...  the weak may be poor but may also be rich oligarchs or middle class.

I have to see what it says before I try to determine what it means (if anything). I do not translate for meaning, but for pattern and usage. Meaning is a very dangerous game. One tends, as I have said before, to impose one's own bias onto meaning, explanation, and understanding. Those three words indicate power over or control of rather than hearing or observation. I do not have such power or control. I have limited technical control given the hordes of fellow earthlings who have created this electronic platform for me. But this platform is dependent on human ingenuity and continuity and cooperation. It is not guaranteed. (And as far as the tongue itself is concerned, I have inherited it from a similar myriad of ancestors.)

Perhaps better (another word I am wary of) than meaning, is application. How does this pithy saying apply? How might it apply?

My current domain of Poor

אביון need(1), needy(50), the-many needy(3)
אמל enfeebled(7), feeble(3)
דל weak(37), weakness(1)
דלל brought low(8)
חלכה hapless(3)
חרג no longer ease(1)
יתום orphan(24), orphans'(1), orphans(8)
כפן penury(2)
סבל bear burden(1), bearing burdens(1), bears burden(1), burden carries(1), burden(6), burdened(1), burdens(2)
סכן cherish(4), cherished(4), custom(2), destitute(5), meagerness(2)
עני impoverished(5), impoverishment(4), near poverty(1), o poor(1), out poverty(1), poor(53), poverty(16),
רוד refugee(1), restless(3), restlessness(2)
רושׁ want(21) רזה emaciate(1), lean(1), leanness(2)

Equally, if I used a generic him/his/he, my life would be easier. But that would be a legal move and would often exclude some readers in these days. You will note that some of my readings are completely opposite in meaning to the traditional. Note verse 17 has neither atenach nor ole-veyored though it could easily have used a rest. I suspect that irrational fear is common, but maybe the cure is neither to blame nor to encourage what we might call mental illness or shock or PTSD.

Proverbs 28 Fn Min Max Syll
נָ֣סוּ וְאֵין־רֹדֵ֣ף רָשָׁ֑ע
וְ֝צַדִּיקִ֗ים כִּכְפִ֥יר יִבְטָֽח
1 B A wicked one withdraws and there is none pursuing,
but a righteous one, like a lion cub, has confidence.
3e 4B 8
8
בְּפֶ֣שַֽׁע אֶ֭רֶץ רַבִּ֣ים שָׂרֶ֑יהָ
וּבְאָדָ֥ם מֵבִ֥ין יֹ֝דֵ֗עַ כֵּ֣ן יַאֲרִֽיךְ
2 In the transgression of a land are many nobles,
but in an earthling, from discerning knowledge, a base may be prolonged.
3e 4B 10
12
גֶּ֣בֶר רָ֭שׁ וְעֹשֵׁ֣ק דַּלִּ֑ים
מָטָ֥ר סֹ֝חֵ֗ף וְאֵ֣ין לָֽחֶם
3 B Who is valiant but in want, and oppresses the weak,
is rain hurtling down and there is no warmth.
3e 4B 8
8
עֹזְבֵ֣י ת֭וֹרָה יְהַֽלְל֣וּ רָשָׁ֑ע
וְשֹׁמְרֵ֥י ת֝וֹרָ֗ה יִתְגָּ֥רוּ בָֽם
4 Who forsakes instruction praises wickedness,
but the keepers of instruction meddle with them.
3e 4B 9
9
אַנְשֵׁי־רָ֭ע לֹא־יָבִ֣ינוּ מִשְׁפָּ֑ט
וּמְבַקְשֵׁ֥י יְ֝הוָ֗ה יָבִ֥ינוּ כֹֽל
5 Persons of evil not do discern judgment,
but those who seek Yahweh discern all.
3e 4B 8
9
טֽוֹב־רָ֭שׁ הוֹלֵ֣ךְ בְּתֻמּ֑וֹ
מֵעִקֵּ֥שׁ דְּ֝רָכַ֗יִם וְה֣וּא עָשִֽׁיר
6 Better one who is in want walking in its completeness,
than one devious of ways and it is rich.
3e 4B 7
10
נוֹצֵ֣ר תּ֭וֹרָה בֵּ֣ן מֵבִ֑ין
וְרֹעֶה זֽ֝וֹלְלִ֗ים יַכְלִ֥ים אָבִֽיו
7 Who observes instruction is a child of discernment,
but who associates with vileness humiliates its parent.
3e 4B 7
9
מַרְבֶּ֣ה ה֭וֹנוֹ בְּנֶ֣שֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּ֑ית
לְחוֹנֵ֖ן דַּלִּ֣ים יִקְבְּצֶֽנּוּ
8 Who increases value at interest and to excess,
for one who is gracious among the weak, it collects.
3e 4B 10
9
מֵסִ֣יר אָ֭זְנוֹ מִשְּׁמֹ֣עַ תּוֹרָ֑ה
גַּֽם־תְּ֝פִלָּת֗וֹ תּוֹעֵבָֽה
9 Who turns aside its own ear from hearing instruction,
even its prayer is an abomination.
3e 4B 9
8
מַשְׁגֶּ֤ה יְשָׁרִ֨ים ׀ בְּדֶ֥רֶךְ רָ֗ע בִּשְׁחוּת֥וֹ הֽוּא־יִפּ֑וֹל
וּ֝תְמִימִ֗ים יִנְחֲלוּ־טֽוֹב
10 Who makes the upright stray into a way of evil, prostrate it will fall,
but the complete will inherit what is good.
3e 4C 15
7
חָכָ֣ם בְּ֭עֵינָיו אִ֣ישׁ עָשִׁ֑יר
וְדַ֖ל מֵבִ֣ין יַחְקְרֶֽנּוּ
11 Wise in its own eyes is one who is rich,
but one who is weak, by discernment will examine it.
3e 4B 8
8
בַּעֲלֹ֣ץ צַ֭דִּיקִים רַבָּ֣ה תִפְאָ֑רֶת
וּבְק֥וּם רְ֝שָׁעִ֗ים יְחֻפַּ֥שׂ אָדָֽם
12 When the righteous are elated, abundant adornment,
and when the wicked arise, an earthling takes cover.
3e 4B 11
10
מְכַסֶּ֣ה פְ֭שָׁעָיו לֹ֣א יַצְלִ֑יחַ
וּמוֹדֶ֖ה וְעֹזֵ֣ב יְרֻחָֽם
13 One who covers its transgressions will not thrive,
but one who confesses and forsakes will find compassion.
3e 4B 10
9
אַשְׁרֵ֣י אָ֭דָם מְפַחֵ֣ד תָּמִ֑יד
וּמַקְשֶׁ֥ה לִ֝בּ֗וֹ יִפּ֥וֹל בְּרָעָֽה
14 Happy the human in dread continually,
but who hardens its heart will fall into evil.
3e 4B 9
10
אֲרִי־נֹ֭הֵם וְדֹ֣ב שׁוֹקֵ֑ק
מֹשֵׁ֥ל רָ֝שָׁ֗ע עַ֣ל עַם־דָּֽל
15 Lion growling and shiftless bear,
a wicked governor over a weak people.
3e 4B 7
7
נָגִ֗יד חֲסַ֣ר תְּ֭בוּנוֹת וְרַ֥ב מַעֲשַׁקּ֑וֹת
שֹׂ֥נֵא בֶ֝֗צַע יַאֲרִ֥יךְ יָמִֽים
16 An aristocrat lacking in discernment, and abundant is oppression.
One who hates seeking gain will prolong days.
3e 4B 13
9
אָ֭דָם עָשֻׁ֣ק בְּדַם־נָפֶשׁ עַד־בּ֥וֹר יָ֝נ֗וּס אַל־יִתְמְכוּ־בֽוֹ 17 g An earthling oppressed by the blood of a cadaver, to a pit will withdraw. Do not retain it there. 3e 4B 16
הוֹלֵ֣ךְ תָּ֭מִים יִוָּשֵׁ֑עַ
וְנֶעְקַ֥שׁ דְּ֝רָכַ֗יִם יִפּ֥וֹל בְּאֶחָֽת
18 One walking complete will be saved,
but one of devious ways will fall singly.
3e 4B 8
11
עֹבֵ֣ד אַ֭דְמָתוֹ יִֽשְׂבַּֽע־לָ֑חֶם
וּמְרַדֵּ֥ף רֵ֝קִ֗ים יִֽשְׂבַּֽע־רִֽישׁ
19 One who serves its own ground is satisfied with bread,
but one pursuing the empty-headed will be satisfied with.
3e 4B 9
8
אִ֣ישׁ אֱ֭מוּנוֹת רַב־בְּרָכ֑וֹת
וְאָ֥ץ לְ֝הַעֲשִׁ֗יר לֹ֣א יִנָּקֶֽה
20 B A faithful person, an abundance of blessings,
but one who importunes riches will not be held innocent.
3e 4B 8
10
הַֽכֵּר־פָּנִ֥ים לֹא־ט֑וֹב
וְעַל־פַּת־לֶ֝֗חֶם יִפְשַׁע־גָּֽבֶר
21 To make faces alien is not good,
but over a fragment of bread valour will transgress.
3e 4A 6
9
נִֽבֳהָ֥ל לַה֗וֹן אִ֭ישׁ רַ֣ע עָ֑יִן
וְלֹֽא־יֵ֝דַע כִּי־חֶ֥סֶר יְבֹאֶֽנּוּ
22 Vexed for value, a person of an evil eye,
and it knows not that lack will come upon it.
3e 4B 9
8
מ֘וֹכִ֤יחַ אָדָ֣ם אַ֭חֲרַי חֵ֣ן יִמְצָ֑א
מִֽמַּחֲלִ֥יק לָשֽׁוֹן
23 ~ Who corrects an earthling after, will find grace,
more than a smooth tongue.
3e 4C 11
6
גּוֹזֵ֤ל ׀ אָ֘בִ֤יו וְאִמּ֗וֹ וְאֹמֵ֥ר אֵֽין־פָּ֑שַׁע
חָבֵ֥ר ה֝֗וּא לְאִ֣ישׁ מַשְׁחִֽית
24 Who robs father or mother and says, There is no transgression,
is companion to a destroyer.
3e 4C 13
7
רְחַב־נֶ֭פֶשׁ יְגָרֶ֣ה מָד֑וֹן
וּבוֹטֵ֖חַ עַל־יְהוָ֣ה יְדֻשָּֽׁן
25 Breadth of self strokes dissension,
but who trusts in Yahweh will be fattened.
3e 4B 9
10
בּוֹטֵ֣חַ בְּ֭לִבּוֹ ה֣וּא כְסִ֑יל
וְהוֹלֵ֥ךְ בְּ֝חָכְמָ֗ה ה֣וּא יִמָּלֵֽט
26 Who trusts in his heart, is stupid
but who walks in wisdom, will escape.
3e 4B 9
10
נוֹתֵ֣ן לָ֭רָשׁ אֵ֣ין מַחְס֑וֹר
וּמַעְלִ֥ים עֵ֝ינָ֗יו רַב־מְאֵרֽוֹת
27 Who gives to those in want will not be lacking,
but who obscures its eyes, many curses.
3e 4B 7
9
בְּק֣וּם רְ֭שָׁעִים יִסָּתֵ֣ר אָדָ֑ם
וּ֝בְאָבְדָ֗ם יִרְבּ֥וּ צַדִּיקִֽים
28 When the wicked arise, earthlings hide themselves,
but when they perish, increased are the righteous.
3e 4B 10
8

Other questions that arose while working on Proverbs 28
I also have trouble with גבר. To date it is as follows, exceopt for names, always a reference to valiant or a related English gloss.

גבר Gaber(1), Geber(3), grandly valiant(1), lady valour(1), make prevail(2), makes prevail(1), men valour(1), mistress(1), more valiant(1), o valiant(2), prevail(5), prevailed(7), prevailing(6), prevails(18), queen-mother(1), valiant acts(2), valiant child(1), valiant men(2), valiant ones(7), valiant(75), valour(52)

My coach tells me גבר means a man. But so do a bunch of other stems mean man. Clearly it sometimes refers to women as well since there are feminine uses. So here (including גבר as above) are the words in which man/men occur in my glosses to date. My only compromise is with אישׁ and מת.

אישׁ -one(16), adults(10), another person(1), another's(1), another(1), anyone(31), being each(1), each every(1), each man(3), each person's(1), each person(4), each(251), every person(1), everyone's(2), everyone(34), hero(1), man's(1), man(196), men(63), more person(1), more(1), one's(1), other(1), others(1), person's(2), person(137), personal(3), persons(74), representative(6), rider(1 - conflict with רכב but implied in Psalm 147), soldiers(26), some(2), someone(44), spouses(1 Jeremiah 29), such(6), untranslated(25)
מת male(1), maleness(1), males(1), men(16)

Other stems use it only as part of the gloss
בחר choice(8), choose(37), chose(29), chosen ones(3), chosen(49), deliberated(1), prime(1), young man(1), young men(3), youth prime(1), youths prime(9)
זקן aged(7), ages(1), beard(4), elder(3), elderly(3), elders(94), eldest(1), even beard(1), more aged(1), old age(5), old men(1), old women(1), old(20)
חכם increase shrewdness(1), made wise(1), make wise(1), makes wise(1), making wise(2), making wiser(1), shrewd things(1), shrewd(59), shrewdness(40), wisdom(68), wise men(1), wise(43), wiser(1), wisest(2)
ערץ panic(2), ruthless men(1), ruthless(15), ruthlessness(2)

Male is also זכר in these stems - another unavoidable compromise with my rules.

בן -kin(2), about children(1), ben(1), ben-(12), child(954), children -(1), children's(7), children(1586), concerning children(1), cubs(1), destiny(1), eaglets(1), grandson(2), he-(48), kids(1), little ones(1), male foal(2), o children(3), out children(1), son(203), sons(95), squab(4), untranslated(4)
גדי Gadi(2), Gadite(1), Gadites(5), Gedi(5), male kid(1), young goat(1), young kids(1)
זכר archivist(7), bring remembrance(1), lasting memory(1), make remembered(1), male(24), males(4), memorial(10), memorials(2), memory(6), remember(107), remembered(30), remembers(4), remembrance(17), reminder(1), untranslated(1), yea, remembers(1), zealous(2), zeroing(1), zion remembers(1), zoomed memory(1)
ילד beget(8), begets(2), begot(1), born(67), boy(2), boys(2), chicks(1), childhood(3), female juvenile(1), gave birth(81), girls(1), give birth(10), given birth(8), gives birth(3), giving birth(12), juvenile(1), juveniles(5), kindred(5), makes fertile(1), male children(2), male juvenile(1), male peers(6), midwife(2), midwives(7), nativity(7), newborn(3), newborns(2), succession(4), successions(16), successors(1), there born(2), toddlers(2)
להה male consternation(1)
עבד Abed(1), Abed-(1), another(1), done(1), Ebed(5), enslaved(1), made serve(4), male slave(3), male slaves(3), manservant(8), manservants(2), o servants(1), one's servant(1), servant(279), servants(203), serve(133), served(42), serves(5), service(55), services(1), serving(2), servitude(20), sevants(1), slave(3), slaves(1), staff servants(2), such served(1), though serve(1)
עברי hebrew female(2), hebrew male(2), hebrew women(2), hebrew(2), hebrews(8)
עקר barren(5), female barren(1), hamstrung(2), male barren(1), o barren(1), root out(1), rooted out(1)
שׁיר sang(3), sing(31), singers female(2), singers male(2), singers(5), song(65), songs(4)