Thursday, March 30, 2017

Joshua 3

Passing through or crossing over? I have choices for עבר across, pass, pass through, bypass, cross, go, transfer, traverse. For the 9 occurrences here, I chose pass through.

Joshua 3 Fn Min Max
וַיַּשְׁכֵּם֩ יְהוֹשֻׁ֨עַ בַּבֹּ֜קֶר וַיִּסְע֣וּ מֵֽהַשִּׁטִּ֗ים וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ עַד־הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן ה֖וּא וְכָל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיָּלִ֥נוּ שָׁ֖ם טֶ֥רֶם יַעֲבֹֽרוּ
1 And Joshua rose up early in the morning, and they pulled out from Shittim, and they came to the Jordan, he and all the children of Israel,
and they lodged there before they passed through.
3e 4B
וַיְהִ֕י מִקְצֵ֖ה שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֑ים
וַיַּעַבְר֥וּ הַשֹּׁטְרִ֖ים בְּקֶ֥רֶב הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה
2 And it happened at the culmination of three days,
that the overseers passed through within the camp.
3e 4B
וַיְצַוּוּ֮ אֶת־הָעָ֣ם לֵאמֹר֒ כִּרְאֽוֹתְכֶ֗ם אֵ֣ת אֲר֤וֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיכֶ֔ם וְהַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ הַלְוִיִּ֔ם נֹשְׂאִ֖ים אֹת֑וֹ
וְאַתֶּ֗ם תִּסְעוּ֙ מִמְּק֣וֹמְכֶ֔ם וַהֲלַכְתֶּ֖ם אַחֲרָֽיו
3 And they commanded the people, saying, When you see the ark of the covenant of Yahweh your God, and the priests the Levites bearing it,
then you, you pull out from your place, and you go after it.
3e 4C
אַ֣ךְ ׀ רָח֣וֹק יִהְיֶ֗ה בֵּֽינֵיכֶם֙ וּבֵינָ֔יו כְּאַלְפַּ֥יִם אַמָּ֖ה בַּמִּדָּ֑ה
אַֽל־תִּקְרְב֣וּ אֵלָ֗יו לְמַ֤עַן אֲשֶׁר־תֵּֽדְעוּ֙ אֶת־הַדֶּ֙רֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֵּֽלְכוּ־בָ֔הּ כִּ֣י לֹ֧א עֲבַרְתֶּ֛ם בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ מִתְּמ֥וֹל שִׁלְשֽׁוֹם
4 B But distance let there be between you and it, about two thousand cubits by measure.
You do not approach to it, in order that you will know concerning the way that you should walk, for you have not passed through in the way, from yesterday three days.
3c 4C
וַיֹּ֧אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֛עַ אֶל־הָעָ֖ם הִתְקַדָּ֑שׁוּ
כִּ֣י מָחָ֗ר יַעֲשֶׂ֧ה יְהוָ֛ה בְּקִרְבְּכֶ֖ם נִפְלָאֽוֹת
5 And Joshua said to the people, Sanctify yourselves,
for tomorrow Yahweh will do among you, wonders.
3c 4B
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִ֣ים לֵאמֹ֔ר שְׂאוּ֙ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן הַבְּרִ֔ית וְעִבְר֖וּ לִפְנֵ֣י הָעָ֑ם
וַיִּשְׂאוּ֙ אֶת־אֲר֣וֹן הַבְּרִ֔ית וַיֵּלְכ֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י הָעָֽם
6 And Joshua said to the priests, saying, Bear the ark of the covenant, and pass through before the people.
And they lifted up the ark of the covenant, and went before the people.
3e 4C
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֗ה אָחֵל֙ גַּדֶּלְךָ֔ בְּעֵינֵ֖י כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
אֲשֶׁר֙ יֵֽדְע֔וּן כִּ֗י כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר הָיִ֛יתִי עִם־מֹשֶׁ֖ה אֶהְיֶ֥ה עִמָּֽךְ
7 And Yahweh said to Joshua, This day I will start to magnify you in the eyes of all Israel,
that they may know that as I was with Moses, I will be with you.
3d 4C
וְאַתָּ֗ה תְּצַוֶּה֙ אֶת־הַכֹּ֣הֲנִ֔ים נֹשְׂאֵ֥י אֲרֽוֹן־הַבְּרִ֖ית לֵאמֹ֑ר
כְּבֹאֲכֶ֗ם עַד־קְצֵה֙ מֵ֣י הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן בַּיַּרְדֵּ֖ן תַּעֲמֹֽדוּ
8 And you, you will command the priests who bear the ark of the covenant, saying,
As you come to the extremity of the waters of the Jordan, in the Jordan you will stand.
3e 4B
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
גֹּ֣שׁוּ הֵ֔נָּה וְשִׁמְע֕וּ אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֖י יְהוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶֽם
9 And Joshua said to the children of Israel,
Come close. Behold, and you will hear the words of Yahweh your God.
3e 4B
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ בְּזֹאת֙ תֵּֽדְע֔וּן כִּ֛י אֵ֥ל חַ֖י בְּקִרְבְּכֶ֑ם
וְהוֹרֵ֣שׁ יוֹרִ֣ישׁ מִ֠פְּנֵיכֶם אֶת־הַכְּנַעֲנִ֨י וְאֶת־הַחִתִּ֜י וְאֶת־הַחִוִּ֗י וְאֶת־הַפְּרִזִּי֙ וְאֶת־הַגִּרְגָּשִׁ֔י וְהָאֱמֹרִ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִֽי
10 And Joshua said, In this you will know that the living One is among you,
and he will dispossess from your presence the Canaanite and the Hittite, and the Hivite, and the Perizzite, and the Girgashite, and the Amorite, and the Jebusite.
3d 4B
הִנֵּה֙ אֲר֣וֹן הַבְּרִ֔ית אֲד֖וֹן כָּל־הָאָ֑רֶץ
עֹבֵ֥ר לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם בַּיַּרְדֵּֽן
11 Behold, the ark of the covenant, the Lord of all the earth,
passes through before you in the Jordan.
3e 4B
וְעַתָּ֗ה קְח֤וּ לָכֶם֙ שְׁנֵ֣י עָשָׂ֣ר אִ֔ישׁ מִשִּׁבְטֵ֖י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
אִישׁ־אֶחָ֥ד אִישׁ־אֶחָ֖ד לַשָּֽׁבֶט
12 And now take for yourselves twelve persons from the bands of Israel,
one person, one person per band.
3e 4C
וְהָיָ֡ה כְּנ֣וֹחַ כַּפּ֣וֹת רַגְלֵ֣י הַכֹּהֲנִ֡ים נֹשְׂאֵי֩ אֲר֨וֹן יְהוָ֜ה אֲד֤וֹן כָּל־הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ בְּמֵ֣י הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן מֵ֤י הַיַּרְדֵּן֙ יִכָּ֣רֵת֔וּן הַמַּ֥יִם הַיֹּרְדִ֖ים מִלְמָ֑עְלָה
וְיַעַמְד֖וּ נֵ֥ד אֶחָֽד
13 And it will happen that as the soles of the feet of the priests who were bearing the ark of Yahweh the Lord of all the earth rest in the waters of the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan will be cut off from the waters that come down from the ascent,
and they will stand in one heap.
3e 4C
וַיְהִ֗י בִּנְסֹ֤עַ הָעָם֙ מֵאָ֣הֳלֵיהֶ֔ם לַעֲבֹ֖ר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן
וְהַכֹּהֲנִ֗ים נֹֽשְׂאֵ֛י הָאָר֥וֹן הַבְּרִ֖ית לִפְנֵ֥י הָעָֽם
14 And it happened when the people pulled out from their tents to pass through the Jordan,
and the priests, who were bearing the ark of the covenant before the people,
3d 4C
וּכְב֞וֹא נֹשְׂאֵ֤י הָֽאָרוֹן֙ עַד־הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וְרַגְלֵ֤י הַכֹּֽהֲנִים֙ נֹשְׂאֵ֣י הָֽאָר֔וֹן נִטְבְּל֖וּ בִּקְצֵ֣ה הַמָּ֑יִם
וְהַיַּרְדֵּ֗ן מָלֵא֙ עַל־כָּל־גְּדוֹתָ֔יו כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֥י קָצִֽיר
15 And as those bearing the ark came to the Jordan, and the feet of the priests who bear the ark dipped into the outskirts of the waters,
(and the Jordan fills over all its levees all the days of harvest),
3e 4C
וַיַּעַמְד֡וּ הַמַּיִם֩ הַיֹּרְדִ֨ים מִלְמַ֜עְלָה קָ֣מוּ נֵד־אֶחָ֗ד הַרְחֵ֨ק מְאֹ֜ד מֵֽאָדָ֤ם הָעִיר֙ אֲשֶׁר֙ מִצַּ֣ד צָֽרְתָ֔ן וְהַיֹּרְדִ֗ים עַ֣ל יָ֧ם הָעֲרָבָ֛ה יָם־הַמֶּ֖לַח תַּ֣מּוּ נִכְרָ֑תוּ
וְהָעָ֥ם עָבְר֖וּ נֶ֥גֶד יְרִיחֽוֹ
16 That the waters that come down from the ascent stood, arising into one heap very far from Adam, the city that is at the side of Tsartan, and those coming down over the sea toward the steppe, the salt sea, were completely cut off,
and the people passed through in front of Jericho.
3c 4C
וַיַּעַמְד֣וּ הַכֹּהֲנִ֡ים נֹ֠שְׂאֵי הָאָר֨וֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָ֜ה בֶּחָֽרָבָ֛ה בְּת֥וֹךְ הַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן הָכֵ֑ן
וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל עֹֽבְרִים֙ בֶּחָ֣רָבָ֔ה עַ֤ד אֲשֶׁר־תַּ֙מּוּ֙ כָּל־הַגּ֔וֹי לַעֲבֹ֖ר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּֽן
17 And the priests stood, who bear the ark the covenant of Yahweh, in the desert in the midst of the Jordan, established.
And all Israel passed through, in the desert, until they completed, all the nation, to pass through the Jordan.
3d 4C

Joshua 24

There is a struggle with translating the word for God. First, the first two letters (אל) are also a preposition. Sometimes they occur with another word (like Beth-el) indicating a place name.

The word in the singular is אלוה. This form is most common in Job, rare elsewhere. The plural, the main word for God or gods is אלהים. It is plural in form but is often associated with a singular pronoun or verb form. (e.g. Genesis 1:3 וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֱלֹהִ֖ים יְהִ֣י א֑וֹר)

It may also have a ה prefix, (364 of 2710 occurrences) indicating the definite article or a direct address or a question.

What cues does a reader use to tell if this word signifies God with a capital G or gods plural, with a lower case g? When should the definite article be made explicit in English? English custom not to say the God, might make the reader think that when the definite article is present, it should always be read as the gods? That doesn't seem to work as a strategy in some places. E.g. 2 Chronicles 24:20.

And the spirit of God (אלהים) clothed Zechariah, child of Jehoiada, the priest, and he stood over the people.
And he said to them, thus says God (האלהים), Why will you bypass the commandments of Yahweh so you will not prosper? Because you have forsaken Yahweh, so he he has forsaken you.

Sometimes I render the God as this God. (The phrase האלהים הזה, which could be rendered as this God, never occurs in the Bible.) But most translators ignore the many instances where האלהים occurs and the theological implication is God with a capital G.

Beware that the aliens (i.e. the non-Hebrews) might well have capitalized their God if they had had such a typographic convention in their time. And the Hebrews in these stories are engaged in putting down the alien gods because Yahweh is jealous and holy and so on. Is this God real? ... Are our gods real? Just look at them: money, power, capital, assets, looks, physique, desire, pleasure, country, family, self, and so on. Some of them might even have noses, but they might not be good at smelling out what is best for themselves or us. We of course, don't capitalize these things, but they are the work of our own hands. To some we frequently assign a definite article, like the market, or the dollar, or the flag.

Joshua in this passage is giving us a warning here. We are told, if we are in this story, to bend our hearts (or the traditional incline from the Anglican liturgy) to Yahweh, the God of Israel.

The measure of money, qasita, is used 3 times: here, Genesis, and Job.

Joshua 24 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיֶּאֶסֹ֧ף יְהוֹשֻׁ֛עַ אֶת־כָּל־שִׁבְטֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל שְׁכֶ֑מָה
וַיִּקְרָא֩ לְזִקְנֵ֨י יִשְׂרָאֵ֜ל וּלְרָאשָׁ֗יו וּלְשֹֽׁפְטָיו֙ וּלְשֹׁ֣טְרָ֔יו וַיִּֽתְיַצְּב֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י הָאֱלֹהִֽים
1 And Joshua gathered all the sceptres of Israel towards Shechem,
and called for the elders of Israel, and to its preeminent, and to its judges, and to its overseers, and they presented themselves before God.
3c 4B 18
28
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ אֶל־כָּל־הָעָ֗ם כֹּֽה־אָמַ֣ר יְהוָה֮ אֱלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַנָּהָ֗ר יָשְׁב֤וּ אֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶם֙ מֵֽעוֹלָ֔ם תֶּ֛רַח אֲבִ֥י אַבְרָהָ֖ם וַאֲבִ֣י נָח֑וֹר
וַיַּעַבְד֖וּ אֱלֹהִ֥ים אֲחֵרִֽים
2 And Joshua said to all the people, Thus says Yahweh, the God of Israel, Across the river, your ancestors settled of old, Terah the father of Abraham, and the father of Nachor,
and they served other gods.
3d 4C 49
10
וָ֠אֶקַּח אֶת־אֲבִיכֶ֤ם אֶת־אַבְרָהָם֙ מֵעֵ֣בֶר הַנָּהָ֔ר וָאוֹלֵ֥ךְ אוֹת֖וֹ בְּכָל־אֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן
וָאַרְבֶּה֙ אֶת־זַרְע֔וֹ וָֽאֶתֶּן־ל֖וֹ אֶת־יִצְחָֽק
3 ~ And I took your father Abraham from beyond the river, and I led him in all the land of Canaan,
and I increased his seed, and I gave to him Yitshaq.
3e 4C 29
13
וָאֶתֵּ֣ן לְיִצְחָ֔ק אֶֽת־יַעֲקֹ֖ב וְאֶת־עֵשָׂ֑ו
וָאֶתֵּ֨ן לְעֵשָׂ֜ו אֶת־הַ֤ר שֵׂעִיר֙ לָרֶ֣שֶׁת אוֹת֔וֹ וְיַעֲקֹ֥ב וּבָנָ֖יו יָרְד֥וּ מִצְרָֽיִם
4 And I gave to Yitschaq, Jacob and Esau.
And I gave to Esau, the hill of Seir to possess it, and Jacob and his children descended to Egypt.
3e 4C 14
27
וָאֶשְׁלַ֞ח אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֤ה וְאֶֽת־אַהֲרֹן֙ וָאֶגֹּ֣ף אֶת־מִצְרַ֔יִם כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשִׂ֖יתִי בְּקִרְבּ֑וֹ
וְאַחַ֖ר הוֹצֵ֥אתִי אֶתְכֶֽם
5 And I sent Moses and Aaron and I plagued Egypt as I have done among them,
and afterwards I brought you out.
3e 4C 26
8
וָֽאוֹצִ֤יא אֶת־אֲבֽוֹתֵיכֶם֙ מִמִּצְרַ֔יִם וַתָּבֹ֖אוּ הַיָּ֑מָּה
וַיִּרְדְּפ֨וּ מִצְרַ֜יִם אַחֲרֵ֧י אֲבוֹתֵיכֶ֛ם בְּרֶ֥כֶב וּבְפָרָשִׁ֖ים יַם־סֽוּף
6 And I brought your ancestors out from Egypt, and you came toward the sea,
and Egypt pursued after your ancestors by chariot and by cavalry, (the sea of reeds).
3c 4C 17
22
וַיִּצְעֲק֣וּ אֶל־יְהוָ֗ה וַיָּ֨שֶׂם מַֽאֲפֵ֜ל בֵּינֵיכֶ֣ם ׀ וּבֵ֣ין הַמִּצְרִ֗ים וַיָּבֵ֨א עָלָ֤יו אֶת־הַיָּם֙ וַיְכַסֵּ֔הוּ וַתִּרְאֶ֙ינָה֙ עֵינֵיכֶ֔ם אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂ֖יתִי בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם
וַתֵּשְׁב֥וּ בַמִּדְבָּ֖ר יָמִ֥ים רַבִּֽים
7 And they cried out to Yahweh, and he put gloom between you and the Egyptians, and brought on them the sea, and covered it and your eyes saw what I did in Egypt,
and you inhabited in the wilderness many days.
3e 4C 50
10
ואבאה אֶתְכֶ֗ם אֶל־אֶ֤רֶץ הָאֱמֹרִי֙ הַיּוֹשֵׁב֙ בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וַיִּֽלָּחֲמ֖וּ אִתְּכֶ֑ם
וָאֶתֵּ֨ן אוֹתָ֤ם בְּיֶדְכֶם֙ וַתִּֽירְשׁ֣וּ אֶת־אַרְצָ֔ם וָאַשְׁמִידֵ֖ם מִפְּנֵיכֶֽם
8 And I brought you to the land of the Amorites, the inhabitants across the Jordan, and they fought you,
and I gave them into your hand, and you possessed their land, and I exterminated them from your presence.
3e 4C 28
21
וַיָּ֨קָם בָּלָ֤ק בֶּן־צִפּוֹר֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ מוֹאָ֔ב וַיִּלָּ֖חֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל
וַיִּשְׁלַ֗ח וַיִּקְרָ֛א לְבִלְעָ֥ם בֶּן־בְּע֖וֹר לְקַלֵּ֥ל אֶתְכֶֽם
9 And arose Balak, child of Zippor, the king of Moab, and fought with Israel,
and he sent and called for Balaam, child of Beor, to slight you.
3d 4C 20
17
וְלֹ֥א אָבִ֖יתִי לִשְׁמֹ֣עַ לְבִלְעָ֑ם
וַיְבָ֤רֶךְ בָּרוֹךְ֙ אֶתְכֶ֔ם וָאַצִּ֥ל אֶתְכֶ֖ם מִיָּדֽוֹ
10 But I did not consent to hear Balaam,
and he went out of his way to bless you, and I delivered you from his hand.
3e 4C 11
15
וַתַּעַבְר֣וּ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן֮ וַתָּבֹ֣אוּ אֶל־יְרִיחוֹ֒ וַיִּלָּחֲמ֣וּ בָכֶ֣ם בַּעֲלֵֽי־יְ֠רִיחוֹ הָֽאֱמֹרִ֨י וְהַפְּרִזִּ֜י וְהַֽכְּנַעֲנִ֗י וְהַֽחִתִּי֙ וְהַגִּרְגָּשִׁ֔י הַֽחִוִּ֖י וְהַיְבוּסִ֑י
וָאֶתֵּ֥ן אוֹתָ֖ם בְּיֶדְכֶֽם
11 And you crossed over the Jordan. And when you came to Jericho, and the owners of Jericho fought with you, the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Girgashite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite.
And I gave them into your hand.
3e 4B 57
8
וָאֶשְׁלַ֤ח לִפְנֵיכֶם֙ אֶת־הַצִּרְעָ֔ה וַתְּגָ֤רֶשׁ אוֹתָם֙ מִפְּנֵיכֶ֔ם שְׁנֵ֖י מַלְכֵ֣י הָאֱמֹרִ֑י
לֹ֥א בְחַרְבְּךָ֖ וְלֹ֥א בְקַשְׁתֶּֽךָ
12 And I sent before you the hornet, to expel them from before you,
Two kings of the Amorite, not with your sword, and not with your bow.
3e 4C 26
11
וָאֶתֵּ֨ן לָכֶ֜ם אֶ֣רֶץ ׀ אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹֽא־יָגַ֣עְתָּ בָּ֗הּ וְעָרִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־בְנִיתֶ֔ם וַתֵּשְׁב֖וּ בָּהֶ֑ם
כְּרָמִ֤ים וְזֵיתִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹֽא־נְטַעְתֶּ֔ם אַתֶּ֖ם אֹכְלִֽים
13 And I have given to you a land where you did not labour, and cities which you did not build, and you have inhabited them.
Vineyards and olive trees that not you did plant, you are eating.
3c 4C 27
16
וְעַתָּ֞ה יְר֧אוּ אֶת־יְהוָ֛ה וְעִבְד֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ בְּתָמִ֣ים וּבֶֽאֱמֶ֑ת
וְהָסִ֣ירוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהִ֗ים אֲשֶׁר֩ עָבְד֨וּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶ֜ם בְּעֵ֤בֶר הַנָּהָר֙ וּבְמִצְרַ֔יִם וְעִבְד֖וּ אֶת־יְהוָֽה
14 So now fear Yahweh, and serve him, in completeness and in truth,
and put aside the gods that your ancestors served across the river and in Egypt, and serve Yahweh.
3c 4C 20
31
וְאִם֩ רַ֨ע בְּֽעֵינֵיכֶ֜ם לַעֲבֹ֣ד אֶת־יְהוָ֗ה בַּחֲר֨וּ לָכֶ֣ם הַיּוֹם֮ אֶת־מִ֣י תַעֲבֹדוּן֒ אִ֣ם אֶת־אֱלֹהִ֞ים אֲשֶׁר־עָבְד֣וּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶ֗ם אֲשֶׁר֙ מֵעֵ֣בֶר הַנָּהָ֔ר וְאִם֙ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵ֣י הָאֱמֹרִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתֶּ֖ם יֹשְׁבִ֣ים בְּאַרְצָ֑ם
וְאָנֹכִ֣י וּבֵיתִ֔י נַעֲבֹ֖ד אֶת־יְהוָֽה
15 And if it is evil in your eyes to serve Yahweh, choose for yourselves today whom you will serve, whether gods that your ancestors served that are from across the river, or whether the gods of the Amorites in whose land you settled,
but I and my house, we will serve Yahweh.
3e 4B 66
13
וַיַּ֤עַן הָעָם֙ וַיֹּ֔אמֶר חָלִ֣ילָה לָּ֔נוּ מֵעֲזֹ֖ב אֶת־יְהוָ֑ה
לַעֲבֹ֖ד אֱלֹהִ֥ים אֲחֵרִֽים
16 And the people answered and said, Far be it for us to forsake Yahweh,
to serve other gods.
3e 4C 19
9
כִּ֚י יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֔ינוּ הוּא֩ הַמַּעֲלֶ֨ה אֹתָ֧נוּ וְאֶת־אֲבוֹתֵ֛ינוּ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם מִבֵּ֣ית עֲבָדִ֑ים
וַאֲשֶׁ֧ר עָשָׂ֣ה לְעֵינֵ֗ינוּ אֶת־הָאֹת֤וֹת הַגְּדֹלוֹת֙ הָאֵ֔לֶּה וַֽיִּשְׁמְרֵ֗נוּ בְּכָל־הַדֶּ֙רֶךְ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הָלַ֣כְנוּ בָ֔הּ וּבְכֹל֙ הָֽעַמִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָבַ֖רְנוּ בְּקִרְבָּֽם
17 C For Yahweh our God, himself, brought us and our ancestors up from the land of Egypt, from the house of servitude,
and he it is who did, in our sight, those great signs, and kept us in every way where we walked, and among all the peoples through whom we passed nearby.
3c 4C 31
48
וַיְגָ֨רֶשׁ יְהוָ֜ה אֶת־כָּל־הָעַמִּ֗ים וְאֶת־הָאֱמֹרִ֛י יֹשֵׁ֥ב הָאָ֖רֶץ מִפָּנֵ֑ינוּ
גַּם־אֲנַ֙חְנוּ֙ נַעֲבֹ֣ד אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה כִּי־ה֖וּא אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ
18 And Yahweh expelled all the peoples, including the Amorite inhabiting the land, from before us.
Moreover, we ourselves will serve Yahweh, for he is our God.
3d 4B 25
15
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ אֶל־הָעָ֗ם לֹ֤א תֽוּכְלוּ֙ לַעֲבֹ֣ד אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה כִּֽי־אֱלֹהִ֥ים קְדֹשִׁ֖ים ה֑וּא
אֵֽל־קַנּ֣וֹא ה֔וּא לֹֽא־יִשָּׂ֥א לְפִשְׁעֲכֶ֖ם וּלְחַטֹּאותֵיכֶֽם
19 And Joshua said to the people, You are not able to serve Yahweh, for the God of holy ones is he.
A jealous God is he. He will not bear for you to transgress or for you to sin.
3e 4C 26
15
כִּ֤י תַֽעַזְבוּ֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה וַעֲבַדְתֶּ֖ם אֱלֹהֵ֣י נֵכָ֑ר
וְשָׁ֨ב וְהֵרַ֤ע לָכֶם֙ וְכִלָּ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם אַחֲרֵ֖י אֲשֶׁר־הֵיטִ֥יב לָכֶֽם
20 C For if you do forsake Yahweh and serve alien gods,
then he will turn and be hurtful to you and consume you, after that he has done good for you.
3e 4C 16
21
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר הָעָ֖ם אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ
לֹ֕א כִּ֥י אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה נַעֲבֹֽד
21 And the people said to Joshua,
No, for Yahweh we will serve.
3e 4A 10
8
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ אֶל־הָעָ֗ם עֵדִ֤ים אַתֶּם֙ בָּכֶ֔ם כִּֽי־אַתֶּ֞ם בְּחַרְתֶּ֥ם לָכֶ֛ם אֶת־יְהוָ֖ה לַעֲבֹ֣ד אוֹת֑וֹ
וַיֹּאמְר֖וּ עֵדִֽים
22 And Joshua said to the people, Witnesses you are among yourselves, that you have chosen for yourselves Yahweh to serve him.
And they said, Witnesses.
3d 4C 31
5
וְעַתָּ֕ה הָסִ֛ירוּ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵ֥י הַנֵּכָ֖ר אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּקִרְבְּכֶ֑ם
וְהַטּוּ֙ אֶת־לְבַבְכֶ֔ם אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל
23 So now put aside the alien gods which are among you,
and bend your heart to Yahweh the God of Israel.
3d 4B 19
16
וַיֹּאמְר֥וּ הָעָ֖ם אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ
אֶת־יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֵ֙ינוּ֙ נַעֲבֹ֔ד וּבְקוֹל֖וֹ נִשְׁמָֽע
24 And the people said to Joshua,
Yahweh our God we will serve, and with his voice we will hear.
3e 4C 10
15
וַיִּכְרֹ֨ת יְהוֹשֻׁ֧עַ בְּרִ֛ית לָעָ֖ם בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֑וּא
וַיָּ֥שֶׂם ל֛וֹ חֹ֥ק וּמִשְׁפָּ֖ט בִּשְׁכֶֽם
25 And Joshua cut a covenant for the people on that day,
and he set for them statute and judgment in Shechem.
3c 4B 15
10
וַיִּכְתֹּ֤ב יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה בְּסֵ֖פֶר תּוֹרַ֣ת אֱלֹהִ֑ים
וַיִּקַּח֙ אֶ֣בֶן גְּדוֹלָ֔ה וַיְקִימֶ֣הָ שָּׁ֔ם תַּ֚חַת הָֽאַלָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּמִקְדַּ֥שׁ יְהוָֽה
26 And Joshua wrote these words in the record of the instruction of God,
and he took a great stone and he placed it there, under an elm which was in the sanctuary of Yahweh.
3e 4C 22
25
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁ֜עַ אֶל־כָּל־הָעָ֗ם הִנֵּ֨ה הָאֶ֤בֶן הַזֹּאת֙ תִּֽהְיֶה־בָּ֣נוּ לְעֵדָ֔ה כִּֽי־הִ֣יא שָׁמְעָ֗ה אֵ֚ת כָּל־אִמְרֵ֣י יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֶּ֖ר עִמָּ֑נוּ
וְהָיְתָ֤ה בָכֶם֙ לְעֵדָ֔ה פֶּֽן־תְּכַחֲשׁ֖וּן בֵּאלֹהֵיכֶֽם
27 And Joshua said to all the people, Behold this stone will be in us a testimony, for it has heard all the promises of Yahweh that he spoke with us,
so it will be in you for a testimony, lest you disown your God.
3e 4C 41
17
וַיְשַׁלַּ֤ח יְהוֹשֻׁ֙עַ֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם אִ֖ישׁ לְנַחֲלָתֽוֹ 28 And Joshua dismissed the people, each to its inheritance. 3e 4C 16
וַיְהִ֗י אַֽחֲרֵי֙ הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה וַיָּ֛מָת יְהוֹשֻׁ֥עַ בִּן־נ֖וּן עֶ֣בֶד יְהוָ֑ה
בֶּן־מֵאָ֥ה וָעֶ֖שֶׂר שָׁנִֽים
29 And it was after these words that Joshua died, child of Nun, the servant of Yahweh,
a child of a hundred and ten years.
3d 4B 24
8
וַיִּקְבְּר֤וּ אֹתוֹ֙ בִּגְב֣וּל נַחֲלָת֔וֹ בְּתִמְנַת־סֶ֖רַח אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּהַר־אֶפְרָ֑יִם
מִצְּפ֖וֹן לְהַר־גָּֽעַשׁ
30 And they entombed him on the border of his inheritance in Temanat-Sprawl, which is in the hill of Ephraim,
north of the hill of Gaash.
3e 4C 24
6
וַיַּעֲבֹ֤ד יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֣י יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ
וְכֹ֣ל ׀ יְמֵ֣י הַזְּקֵנִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֶאֱרִ֤יכוּ יָמִים֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י יְהוֹשֻׁ֔עַ וַאֲשֶׁ֣ר יָדְע֗וּ אֵ֚ת כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂ֣ה יְהוָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָׂ֖ה לְיִשְׂרָאֵֽל
31 And Israel served Yahweh all the days of Joshua,
and all the days of the elders whose days were prolonged after Joshua, and who had known every deed of Yahweh that he had done for Israel.
3e 4C 17
42
וְאֶת־עַצְמ֣וֹת י֠וֹסֵף אֲשֶׁר־הֶעֱל֨וּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֥ל ׀ מִמִּצְרַיִם֮ קָבְר֣וּ בִשְׁכֶם֒ בְּחֶלְקַ֣ת הַשָּׂדֶ֗ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר קָנָ֧ה יַעֲקֹ֛ב מֵאֵ֛ת בְּנֵֽי־חֲמ֥וֹר אֲבִֽי־שְׁכֶ֖ם בְּמֵאָ֣ה קְשִׂיטָ֑ה
וַיִּֽהְי֥וּ לִבְנֵֽי־יוֹסֵ֖ף לְנַחֲלָֽה
32 And the bones of Joseph which the children of Israel had brought up from Egypt they entombed, in Shechem, in a part of the field that Jacob purchased from the children of Hamor, the father of Shechem, for a hundred qasita,
and they became for the children of Joseph as inheritance.
3c 4B 51
10
וְאֶלְעָזָ֥ר בֶּֽן־אַהֲרֹ֖ן מֵ֑ת
וַיִּקְבְּר֣וּ אֹת֗וֹ בְּגִבְעַת֙ פִּֽינְחָ֣ס בְּנ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִתַּן־ל֖וֹ בְּהַ֥ר אֶפְרָֽיִם
33 And Eleazar child of Aaron died,
and they entombed him in the hillock of Phineas, his son, that was given him in the hill of Ephraim.
3e 4B 9
23

Monday, March 27, 2017

Random measurements of progress

I have an audit mechanism as part of the software I am using, (GX-LEAF). While taking a backup of critical files, I discover that I have made approximately 22,000 changes in the last 11 days, in the word table that I am working with in this translation exercise I am doing. These are gloss adjustments, domain adjustments, and other changes related to the 9 chapters read since mid-month. The 9 chapters comprise roughly 250 verses. Other verses are also affected outside the boundary of these chapters, especially since I have been reviewing the work I did in 2015 (I am currently up to December and two books, the rest of the Song, and Ruth, will be re-posted in April when I am away from my desk and take no work with me on holidays).

There is no possibility that this control could have been done without the computer and all its worldwide capacity. How, I wonder, did the LXX translators in the 2nd and 3rd centuries before the common era control their reading?  How even, do copyists control their work?

And my text is itself marginally unique. Though most of it comes from a single source (tanach.us), I do add and change words from the DSS if I think it is suitable. (E.g. the missing N verse in Psalm 145.)

So here is a little of what is written at the end of my Tanakh for Deuteronomy
חזק
נשלמו חמשה חומשי תורא. תהלה לאל גדול ונורא׃
סכום פסוקי דספר דברים תשע מאות וחמשים וחמשא הנץ סמין׃ וחציו ועשית על פי הדבר אשר יגידו לך׃  ופרשיותיו אחד עשר אסרו חג בעבותים סימן

Hurrah,
The five books of Torah were completed. Praise to God, great and fearful.
The verses of Deuteronomy (devarim) are nine hundred and fifty-five.

But I count nine-hundred and fifty-nine verses (though I am not yet finished looking at them all).

What follows next is odd? - הנץ סימן
then it reads: and you will do what they tell you.
and its portions were eleven,
 אסרו חג בעבותים סימן ???

Anyone care to try the questions? or the next bit?

וסדריו עשרים ושבעה יפיה אמונה יגיד צדק סימן׃

Sunday, March 26, 2017

Proverbs 6

This was where I was stuck. And if I think too much, I will be stuck again. One professor told me my words must make sense. But what is the sense it must make?  Why should one not go surety for someone? What makes it a trap? Is the writer counselling narrowness and stinginess, the protection of one's own property? When someone supports another, this is good, not evil, unless the supporter brings on dependency. If you ignore verse 1 and imagine that it is some other disgraceful action that is being considered, then verses 2 and following make some sense.

There are times when the advice is purely male specific. Any attempt to take it out of this context is almost bound to fail. There are times when the female is metaphorical, either for Wisdom, desirable or for harlotry, undesirable for anyone male or female. Parts of this will be problematic to some theologies. Adultery is denied atonement (כפר). Perhaps the writer of verses 35 and 36 has bitter experience that prevents some cover-prices. It could be that jealousy is the subject of these sentences so I have read 'it' instead of 'he' (the aggrieved party). Certainly in the case of personification, I can allow the refusal of atonement to stand. Jealousy simply doesn't get a hearing in the final sentencing.

The term dissension in verse 14 and 19, I could have rendered with a modern commonplace, fake news. Even dissension is a strange gloss for this usually positive word, דין.

Verse 26 has its own character. It is phrased as a tricolon with a cadence after 12 syllables and a second cadence 4 syllables later. So pause in the reading. Harlotry seems OK in the final assize. I think our advisor here is a bit loose. In fact, all in all, I would take this chapter with a grain of salt.




Proverbs 6 Fn Min Max Syll
בְּ֭נִי אִם־עָרַ֣בְתָּ לְרֵעֶ֑ךָ
תָּקַ֖עְתָּ לַזָּ֣ר כַּפֶּֽיךָ
1 g My child, if you give surety for your associate,
you have guaranteed for a stranger your open palm.
3e 4B 10
8
נוֹקַ֥שְׁתָּ בְאִמְרֵי־פִ֑יךָ
נִ֝לְכַּ֗דְתָּ בְּאִמְרֵי־פִֽיךָ
2 You have laid a trap with the promises of your mouth.
You are caught with the promises of your mouth.
3e 4A 7
7
עֲשֵׂ֨ה זֹ֥את אֵפ֪וֹא ׀ בְּנִ֡י וְֽהִנָּצֵ֗ל כִּ֘י בָ֤אתָ בְכַף־רֵעֶ֑ךָ
לֵ֥ךְ הִ֝תְרַפֵּ֗ס וּרְהַ֥ב רֵעֶֽיךָ
3 Do this here and now, my child, and deliver yourself, for you come into the palm of your associate.
Go, submit yourself, and make bold to your associate.
3d 4C 19
9
אַל־תִּתֵּ֣ן שֵׁנָ֣ה לְעֵינֶ֑יךָ
וּ֝תְנוּמָ֗ה לְעַפְעַפֶּֽיךָ
4 Do not give sleep to your eyes,
nor slumber to your eyelids.
3e 4B 9
8
הִ֭נָּצֵל כִּצְבִ֣י מִיָּ֑ד
וּ֝כְצִפּ֗וֹר מִיַּ֥ד יָקֽוּשׁ פ
5 g Deliver yourself as a gazelle, from the hand,
and as a bird, from the hand of a trapper.
3e 4B 7
8
לֵֽךְ־אֶל־נְמָלָ֥ה עָצֵ֑ל
רְאֵ֖ה דְרָכֶ֣יהָ וַחֲכָֽם
6 Go toward the ant, sluggard.
See her ways, and be shrewd.
3e 4B 7
9
אֲשֶׁ֖ר אֵֽין־לָ֥הּ קָצִ֗ין שֹׁטֵ֥ר וּמֹשֵֽׁל 7 Though there is for her no dictator, overseer, or governor, 3e 3g 11
תָּכִ֣ין בַּקַּ֣יִץ לַחְמָ֑הּ
אָגְרָ֥ה בַ֝קָּצִ֗יר מַאֲכָלָֽהּ
8 She prepares in the summer her bread,
and stores at the harvest her food.
3e 4B 6
9
עַד־מָתַ֖י עָצֵ֥ל ׀ תִּשְׁכָּ֑ב
מָ֝תַ֗י תָּק֥וּם מִשְּׁנָתֶֽךָ
9 How long, sluggard, will you lie down?
When will you arise from your sleep?
3e 4A 7
8
מְעַ֣ט שֵׁ֭נוֹת מְעַ֣ט תְּנוּמ֑וֹת
מְעַ֓ט ׀ חִבֻּ֖ק יָדַ֣יִם לִשְׁכָּֽב
10 A little sleep, a little slumber,
a little clasping of hands to lie down,
3e 4B 9
8
וּבָֽא־כִמְהַלֵּ֥ךְ רֵאשֶׁ֑ךָ
וּ֝מַחְסֹֽרְךָ֗ כְּאִ֣ישׁ מָגֵֽן פ
11 so comes, as a traveler, your want,
and your deprivation, as someone shielded.
3e 4B 8
9
אָדָ֣ם בְּ֭לִיַּעַל אִ֣ישׁ אָ֑וֶן
ה֝וֹלֵ֗ךְ עִקְּשׁ֥וּת פֶּֽה
12 A worthless human, a mischievous person,
walks with a devious mouth.
3e 4B 9
5
קֹרֵ֣ץ בְּ֭עֵינָו מֹלֵ֣ל בְּרַגְלָ֑ו
מֹ֝רֶ֗ה בְּאֶצְבְּעֹתָֽיו
13 It winks with its eyes, makes a speech with its feet,
instructs with its toes.
3e 4B 10
7
תַּֽהְפֻּכ֨וֹת ׀ בְּלִבּ֗וֹ חֹרֵ֣שׁ רָ֣ע בְּכָל־עֵ֑ת
מִדְיָנִ֥ים יְשַׁלֵּֽחַ
14 Waywardness in its heart, deaf to evil for all time,
dissension it dispenses.
3e 4B 12
7
עַל־כֵּ֗ן פִּ֭תְאֹם יָב֣וֹא אֵיד֑וֹ
פֶּ֥תַע יִ֝שָּׁבֵ֗ר וְאֵ֣ין מַרְפֵּֽא פ
15 So, sudden will come his misfortune.
Suddenly he is broken, and there is none to heal.
3e 4B 8
10
שֶׁשׁ־הֵ֭נָּה שָׂנֵ֣א יְהוָ֑ה
וְ֝שֶׁ֗בַע תּוֹעֲבַ֥ת נַפְשֽׁוֹ
16 Six, behold, Yahweh hates,
and seven an abomination to to him:
3e 4B 7
8
עֵינַ֣יִם רָ֭מוֹת לְשׁ֣וֹן שָׁ֑קֶר
וְ֝יָדַ֗יִם שֹׁפְכ֥וֹת דָּם־נָקִֽי
17 Eyes exalted, a false tongue,
and hands shedding innocent blood,
3e 4B 8
8
לֵ֗ב חֹ֭רֵשׁ מַחְשְׁב֣וֹת אָ֑וֶן
רַגְלַ֥יִם מְ֝מַהֲר֗וֹת לָר֥וּץ לָֽרָעָה
18 ~ A deaf heart, devising mischief,
feet swift to race to evil,
3e 4B 8
11
יָפִ֣יחַ כְּ֭זָבִים עֵ֣ד שָׁ֑קֶר
וּמְשַׁלֵּ֥חַ מְ֝דָנִ֗ים בֵּ֣ין אַחִֽים פ
19 Snorting lies, a false witness,
and sending dissension among kin.
3e 4B 9
11
נְצֹ֣ר בְּ֭נִי מִצְוַ֣ת אָבִ֑יךָ
וְאַל־תִּ֝טֹּ֗שׁ תּוֹרַ֥ת אִמֶּֽךָ
20 Preserve, my child, your father's commandment,
and not do abandon your mother's instruction.
3e 4B 9
9
קָשְׁרֵ֣ם עַל־לִבְּךָ֣ תָמִ֑יד
עָ֝נְדֵ֗ם עַל־גַּרְגְּרֹתֶֽךָ
21 Fasten them against your heart continually.
Tie them against your gullet.
3e 4B 7
8
בְּהִתְהַלֶּכְךָ֨ ׀ תַּנְחֶ֬ה אֹתָ֗ךְ בְּֽ֭שָׁכְבְּךָ תִּשְׁמֹ֣ר עָלֶ֑יךָ
וַ֝הֲקִיצ֗וֹתָ הִ֣יא תְשִׂיחֶֽךָ
22 When you go, she will guide you. When you lie down, she will guard beside you.
And when you awaken, she will ponder you.
3e 4B 18
10
כִּ֤י נֵ֣ר מִ֭צְוָה וְת֣וֹרָה א֑וֹר
וְדֶ֥רֶךְ חַ֝יִּ֗ים תּוֹכְח֥וֹת מוּסָֽר
23 C For a command is a lamp, and instruction light,
and the way of life, reproof of chastening,
3e 4C 8
9
לִ֭שְׁמָרְךָ מֵאֵ֣שֶׁת רָ֑ע
מֵֽ֝חֶלְקַ֗ת לָשׁ֥וֹן נָכְרִיָּֽה
24 g To keep you from the woman of evil,
from the flattery of an alien tongue.
3e 4B 7
8
אַל־תַּחְמֹ֣ד יָ֭פְיָהּ בִּלְבָבֶ֑ךָ
וְאַל־תִּ֝קָּֽחֲךָ֗ בְּעַפְעַפֶּֽיהָ
25 You will not covet her beauty in your heart,
and you will not let her take you with her eyelids.
3e 4B 9
11
כִּ֤י בְעַד־אִשָּׁ֥ה זוֹנָ֗ה עַֽד־כִּכַּ֫ר לָ֥חֶם
וְאֵ֥שֶׁת אִ֑ישׁ
נֶ֖פֶשׁ יְקָרָ֣ה תָצֽוּד
26 C For concerning a woman of harlotry? up to a talent of bread.
But a man's woman,
a precious self hunts.
3e 4C 12
4
7
הֲיַחְתֶּ֤ה אִ֓ישׁ אֵ֬שׁ בְּחֵיק֑וֹ
וּ֝בְגָדָ֗יו לֹ֣א תִשָּׂרַֽפְנָה
27 Can anyone take hold fire in its embrace,
and its garments not be incinerated?
3e 4C 8
8
אִם־יְהַלֵּ֣ךְ אִ֭ישׁ עַל־הַגֶּחָלִ֑ים
וְ֝רַגְלָ֗יו לֹ֣א תִכָּוֶֽינָה
28 Can anyone walk on the burning coals,
and its feet not be branded?
3e 4B 10
8
כֵּ֗ן הַ֭בָּא אֶל־אֵ֣שֶׁת רֵעֵ֑הוּ
לֹ֥א יִ֝נָּקֶ֗ה כָּֽל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בָּֽהּ
29 ~ So the one coming to the woman of his associate,
will not be innocent of anything touching her.
3e 4B 9
10
לֹא־יָב֣וּזוּ לַ֭גַּנָּב כִּ֣י יִגְנ֑וֹב
לְמַלֵּ֥א נַ֝פְשׁ֗וֹ כִּ֣י יִרְעָֽב
30 Not to contempt they would hold a thief,
for it steals to fill itself, for it is hungry.
3e 4B 9
8
וְ֭נִמְצָא יְשַׁלֵּ֣ם שִׁבְעָתָ֑יִם
אֶת־כָּל־ה֖וֹן בֵּית֣וֹ יִתֵּֽן
31 g But if found, it will repay seven times.
All the value of its house it gives.
3e 4B 10
7
נֹאֵ֣ף אִשָּׁ֣ה חֲסַר־לֵ֑ב
מַֽשְׁחִ֥ית נַ֝פְשׁ֗וֹ ה֣וּא יַעֲשֶֽׂנָּה
32 Adultery with a woman is lacking in heart.
Destroying himself is he who does this.
3e 4B 7
9
נֶֽגַע־וְקָל֥וֹן יִמְצָ֑א
וְ֝חֶרְפָּת֗וֹ לֹ֣א תִמָּחֶֽה
33 Contagion and disgrace he finds,
and his reproach will not be wiped out.
3e 4B 7
8
כִּֽי־קִנְאָ֥ה חֲמַת־גָּ֑בֶר
וְלֹֽא־יַ֝חְמ֗וֹל בְּי֣וֹם נָקָֽם
34 For jealousy is the heat of valour,
and it will not pity in the day of vengeance.
3e 4B 7
8
לֹא־יִ֭שָּׂא פְּנֵ֣י כָל־כֹּ֑פֶר
וְלֹֽא־יֹ֝אבֶ֗ה כִּ֣י תַרְבֶּה־שֹֽׁחַד פ
35 Nothing will it bear in the face of any cover-price,
and it will fail to consent, when you increase bribes.
3e 4B 7
9

Exodus 10

I was stuck. And now am unstuck. It is quite easy to get stuck. So many questions arise when reading this foreign story in a foreign tongue and a foreign script that my mind must rest before attempting to deal with them.

Hardening of the heart. KJV uses several quite distinct roots for this one phrase. Here is how I have combed out the differences: A heart may be assured, courageous (resolute), glorified (heavy), or hardened in the sense of intransigent (also the same word as bow as in 'bow and arrow').

אמץ assurance(3), assure(7), assured(21), assures(1), bay(2), more assured(1), one assured(1), sure(1)
חזק courage(7), courageous(38), encourage(5), encouraged himself(1), encouraged(27), give courage(1), given courage(1), made resolute(6), make resolute(4), more courage than(1), resolute(37), resolutely took hold(1), resolutely(4), resolved(3), revamp(7), revamped(2), show himself resolute(1)
כבד glorified(5), glorifies(4), glorify(12), glorious ones(2), glorious things(1), glorious(3), glory(144), heavier(2), heaviness(1), heavy(24), liver(1), made heavy(1), make heavy(1), make yourself heavy(2), making heavy(1), one glorifies(1), pile(1)
קשׁה ... bow(2), bow(35), bows(1), hair-(1), hammered work(8), hammered(1), hard news(1), hard(9), harden(3), hardened(7), hardens(1), hardness(1), intransigence(4), intransigent(7)

A related psychological state: stubborn, סור, but it is not just one English word. In this passage Pharaoh's heart is heavy in the sense of self-glorified in verse 1, but in verses 20 and 27 it is resolute or assured that Moses and Aaron cannot get away from him. They and the people will be kept in their bondage. And Pharaoh has a point. The world for us is captivating.

In oversimplifying the translation, perhaps to make the English easier to read, the translators have not improved understanding. How is one to know how to think about our complex humanity from this canonical example, if one learns from an oversimplified text? It's fine as long as we draw no conclusions about what we think we know in this history and story. But human beings love to draw conclusions (true or false), and then draw others into their circle of influence. The simpler the better. "O what a mess I have inherited. Only I can fix it!" As Pharaoh warns, I too must take care to dethrone myself also. We face evil. In what can we trust? I am glad that I reread Psalm 27 the other day.

Now which plagues are these? We seem to be backing into this story. They are the 8th and the ninth.

Exodus 10 Fn Min Max Syll
וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יְהוָה֙ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֔ה בֹּ֖א אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֑ה
כִּֽי־אֲנִ֞י הִכְבַּ֤דְתִּי אֶת־לִבּוֹ֙ וְאֶת־לֵ֣ב עֲבָדָ֔יו לְמַ֗עַן שִׁתִ֛י אֹתֹתַ֥י אֵ֖לֶּה בְּקִרְבּֽוֹ
1 And Yahweh said to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh,
for I have myself made his heart heavy, and the heart of his servants, in order to set these my signs within him,
3d 4C 12
27
וּלְמַ֡עַן תְּסַפֵּר֩ בְּאָזְנֵ֨י בִנְךָ֜ וּבֶן־בִּנְךָ֗ אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁ֤ר הִתְעַלַּ֙לְתִּי֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם וְאֶת־אֹתֹתַ֖י אֲשֶׁר־שַׂ֣מְתִּי בָ֑ם
וִֽידַעְתֶּ֖ם כִּי־אֲנִ֥י יְהוָֽה
2 And so that you may recount in the ears of your child, and the child of your child, what my practices were in Egypt, and my signs that I set within them,
and you will know that I am Yahweh.
3e 4C 35
7
וַיָּבֹ֨א מֹשֶׁ֣ה וְאַהֲרֹן֮ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה֒ וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ אֵלָ֗יו כֹּֽה־אָמַ֤ר יְהוָה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֣י הָֽעִבְרִ֔ים עַד־מָתַ֣י מֵאַ֔נְתָּ לֵעָנֹ֖ת מִפָּנָ֑י
שַׁלַּ֥ח עַמִּ֖י וְיַֽעַבְדֻֽנִי
3 And Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh, and said to him, Thus says Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, How long will you not answer in my presence?
Set my people loose, that they may serve me.
3e 4C 40
9
כִּ֛י אִם־מָאֵ֥ן אַתָּ֖ה לְשַׁלֵּ֣חַ אֶת־עַמִּ֑י
הִנְנִ֨י מֵבִ֥יא מָחָ֛ר אַרְבֶּ֖ה בִּגְבֻלֶֽךָ
4 d Because, if will not you set my people loose,
note me well, I will bring tomorrow, locust within your border.
3d 4B 13
12
וְכִסָּה֙ אֶת־עֵ֣ין הָאָ֔רֶץ וְלֹ֥א יוּכַ֖ל לִרְאֹ֣ת אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ
וְאָכַ֣ל ׀ אֶת־יֶ֣תֶר הַפְּלֵטָ֗ה הַנִּשְׁאֶ֤רֶת לָכֶם֙ מִן־הַבָּרָ֔ד וְאָכַל֙ אֶת־כָּל־הָעֵ֔ץ הַצֹּמֵ֥חַ לָכֶ֖ם מִן־הַשָּׂדֶֽה
5 And it will cover the eye of the land, and no one will be able to see the land,
and it will eat the remaining of what was secured, the residue for you from the hail, and it will eat every tree that grows for you from the field.
3e 4C 18
36
וּמָלְא֨וּ בָתֶּ֜יךָ וּבָתֵּ֣י כָל־עֲבָדֶיךָ֮ וּבָתֵּ֣י כָל־מִצְרַיִם֒ אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־רָא֤וּ אֲבֹתֶ֙יךָ֙ וַאֲב֣וֹת אֲבֹתֶ֔יךָ מִיּ֗וֹם הֱיוֹתָם֙ עַל־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה עַ֖ד הַיּ֣וֹם הַזֶּ֑ה
וַיִּ֥פֶן וַיֵּצֵ֖א מֵעִ֥ם פַּרְעֹֽה
6 And they will fill your houses, and the houses of all your servants, and the houses of all Egypt, such as your fathers nor the fathers of your fathers have not seen from the day they were on the ground to this day.
And he faced about, and he went forth from Pharaoh.
3e 4C 50
10
וַיֹּאמְרוּ֩ עַבְדֵ֨י פַרְעֹ֜ה אֵלָ֗יו עַד־מָתַי֙ יִהְיֶ֨ה זֶ֥ה לָ֙נוּ֙ לְמוֹקֵ֔שׁ שַׁלַּח֙ אֶת־הָ֣אֲנָשִׁ֔ים וְיַֽעַבְד֖וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֑ם
הֲטֶ֣רֶם תֵּדַ֔ע כִּ֥י אָבְדָ֖ה מִצְרָֽיִם
7 And the servants of Pharaoh said to him, How long will be this be for us a trap? Set loose everyone and let them serve Yahweh their God.
Do you not yet know that Egypt is perished?
3e 4B 38
11
וַיּוּשַׁ֞ב אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֤ה וְאֶֽת־אַהֲרֹן֙ אֶל־פַּרְעֹ֔ה וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֔ם לְכ֥וּ עִבְד֖וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֑ם
מִ֥י וָמִ֖י הַהֹלְכִֽים
8 And Moses and Aaron were made to return to Pharaoh, and he said to them, Go. Serve Yahweh your God.
Who and who, are those who will go?
3e 4C 31
6
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר מֹשֶׁ֔ה בִּנְעָרֵ֥ינוּ וּבִזְקֵנֵ֖ינוּ נֵלֵ֑ךְ
בְּבָנֵ֨ינוּ וּבִבְנוֹתֵ֜נוּ בְּצֹאנֵ֤נוּ וּבִבְקָרֵ֙נוּ֙ נֵלֵ֔ךְ כִּ֥י חַג־יְהוָ֖ה לָֽנוּ
9 And Moses said, With our youths and with our elders we will go.
With our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds, we will go, because the feast of Yahweh is for us.
3e 4C 16
26
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם יְהִ֨י כֵ֤ן יְהוָה֙ עִמָּכֶ֔ם כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר אֲשַׁלַּ֥ח אֶתְכֶ֖ם וְאֶֽת־טַפְּכֶ֑ם
רְא֕וּ כִּ֥י רָעָ֖ה נֶ֥גֶד פְּנֵיכֶֽם
10 And he said to them, Let it be so that Yahweh is with you, in that I will set you loose and your little ones.
See that evil is in front of your face.
3d 4C 26
10
לֹ֣א כֵ֗ן לְכֽוּ־נָ֤א הַגְּבָרִים֙ וְעִבְד֣וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה כִּ֥י אֹתָ֖הּ אַתֶּ֣ם מְבַקְשִׁ֑ים
וַיְגָ֣רֶשׁ אֹתָ֔ם מֵאֵ֖ת פְּנֵ֥י פַרְעֹֽה
11 B (Not so.) Go now, you valiant, and serve Yahweh, for her you are seeking.
And he expelled them from the presence of Pharaoh.
3e 4C 21
11
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה נְטֵ֨ה יָדְךָ֜ עַל־אֶ֤רֶץ מִצְרַ֙יִם֙ בָּֽאַרְבֶּ֔ה וְיַ֖עַל עַל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם
וְיֹאכַל֙ אֶת־כָּל־עֵ֣שֶׂב הָאָ֔רֶץ אֵ֛ת כָּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר הִשְׁאִ֖יר הַבָּרָֽד
12 And Yahweh said to Moses, Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt for locust, that they ascend over the land of Egypt,
and eat every herb of the land, all that the hail left as residue.
3d 4C 29
19
וַיֵּ֨ט מֹשֶׁ֣ה אֶת־מַטֵּהוּ֮ עַל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַיִם֒ וַֽיהוָ֗ה נִהַ֤ג ר֥וּחַ קָדִים֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ כָּל־הַיּ֥וֹם הַה֖וּא וְכָל־הַלָּ֑יְלָה
הַבֹּ֣קֶר הָיָ֔ה וְר֙וּחַ֙ הַקָּדִ֔ים נָשָׂ֖א אֶת־הָאַרְבֶּֽה
13 And Moses stretched out his rod over the land of Egypt, and Yahweh drove a wind from the east in the land all that day, and all the night long.
There was the morning, and the wind from the east had supplied the locust.
3e 4C 34
17
וַיַּ֣עַל הָֽאַרְבֶּ֗ה עַ֚ל כָּל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם וַיָּ֕נַח בְּכֹ֖ל גְּב֣וּל מִצְרָ֑יִם
כָּבֵ֣ד מְאֹ֔ד לְ֠פָנָיו לֹא־הָ֨יָה כֵ֤ן אַרְבֶּה֙ כָּמֹ֔הוּ וְאַחֲרָ֖יו לֹ֥א יִֽהְיֶה־כֵּֽן
14 And the locust ascended over all the land of Egypt, and rested within every border of Egypt.
Excessively glorious. Before it there was not such a locust like it, and after it neither will there be such.
3e 4C 22
23
וַיְכַ֞ס אֶת־עֵ֣ין כָּל־הָאָרֶץ֮ וַתֶּחְשַׁ֣ךְ הָאָרֶץ֒ וַיֹּ֜אכַל אֶת־כָּל־עֵ֣שֶׂב הָאָ֗רֶץ וְאֵת֙ כָּל־פְּרִ֣י הָעֵ֔ץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר הוֹתִ֖יר הַבָּרָ֑ד
וְלֹא־נוֹתַ֨ר כָּל־יֶ֧רֶק בָּעֵ֛ץ וּבְעֵ֥שֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרָֽיִם
15 And it covered the eye of all the land, so the land was darkened, and it ate every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the tree, which the hail had left,
and there was not left any foliage in the tree, or in the herbs of the field, in all the land of Egypt.
3c 4B 38
21
וַיְמַהֵ֣ר פַּרְעֹ֔ה לִקְרֹ֖א לְמֹשֶׁ֣ה וּֽלְאַהֲרֹ֑ן
וַיֹּ֗אמֶר חָטָ֛אתִי לַיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֖ם וְלָכֶֽם
16 And swiftly Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron,
and he said, I have sinned to Yahweh your God, and to you.
3d 4B 14
15
וְעַתָּ֗ה שָׂ֣א נָ֤א חַטָּאתִי֙ אַ֣ךְ הַפַּ֔עַם וְהַעְתִּ֖ירוּ לַיהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֑ם
וְיָסֵר֙ מֵֽעָלַ֔י רַ֖ק אֶת־הַמָּ֥וֶת הַזֶּֽה
17 So now, bear please, my sin, but this one time, and petition to Yahweh your God,
that he put aside from me solely this death.
3e 4C 22
13
וַיֵּצֵ֖א מֵעִ֣ם פַּרְעֹ֑ה
וַיֶּעְתַּ֖ר אֶל־יְהוָֽה
18 And he went forth from Pharaoh,
and he petitioned to Yahweh.
3e 4B 7
6
וַיַּהֲפֹ֨ךְ יְהוָ֤ה רֽוּחַ־יָם֙ חָזָ֣ק מְאֹ֔ד וַיִּשָּׂא֙ אֶת־הָ֣אַרְבֶּ֔ה וַיִּתְקָעֵ֖הוּ יָ֣מָּה סּ֑וּף
לֹ֤א נִשְׁאַר֙ אַרְבֶּ֣ה אֶחָ֔ד בְּכֹ֖ל גְּב֥וּל מִצְרָֽיִם
19 And Yahweh changed the wind from the sea, very resolutely, and lifted up the locust, and sounded them toward the sea of reeds.
He did not leave a residue of one locust within any border of Egypt.
3e 4C 28
14
וַיְחַזֵּ֥ק יְהוָ֖ה אֶת־לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֑ה
וְלֹ֥א שִׁלַּ֖ח אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל פ
20 But Yahweh made the heart of Pharaoh resolute,
and he did not set loose the children of Israel.
3e 4B 9
11
וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהוָ֜ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה נְטֵ֤ה יָֽדְךָ֙ עַל־הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וִ֥יהִי חֹ֖שֶׁךְ עַל־אֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם
וְיָמֵ֖שׁ חֹֽשֶׁךְ
21 And Yahweh said to Moses, Stretch out your hand over the heavens. that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt,
that one may feel darkness.
3e 4C 26
5
וַיֵּ֥ט מֹשֶׁ֛ה אֶת־יָד֖וֹ עַל־הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם
וַיְהִ֧י חֹֽשֶׁךְ־אֲפֵלָ֛ה בְּכָל־אֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם שְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת יָמִֽים
22 And Moses stretched out his hand over the heavens,
and gloomy darkness happened in all the land of Egypt, three days.
3c 4A 12
18
לֹֽא־רָא֞וּ אִ֣ישׁ אֶת־אָחִ֗יו וְלֹא־קָ֛מוּ אִ֥ישׁ מִתַּחְתָּ֖יו שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת יָמִ֑ים
וּֽלְכָל־בְּנֵ֧י יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל הָ֥יָה א֖וֹר בְּמוֹשְׁבֹתָֽם
23 They did not see each his kin, and they did not arise, each from under itself, three days,
but for all the children of Israel, there was light in their settlements.
3c 4B 18
14
וַיִּקְרָ֨א פַרְעֹ֜ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ לְכוּ֙ עִבְד֣וּ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה רַ֛ק צֹאנְכֶ֥ם וּבְקַרְכֶ֖ם יֻצָּ֑ג
גַּֽם־טַפְּכֶ֖ם יֵלֵ֥ךְ עִמָּכֶֽם
24 And Pharaoh called to Moses and he said, Go. Serve Yahweh but your flocks and your herds be postponed.
Also your little ones will go with you.
3d 4B 26
8
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר מֹשֶׁ֔ה גַּם־אַתָּ֛ה תִּתֵּ֥ן בְּיָדֵ֖נוּ זְבָחִ֣ים וְעֹל֑וֹת
וְעָשִׂ֖ינוּ לַיהוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ
25 And Moses said, You also will give into our hands sacrifices and burnt offerings,
that we may make to Yahweh our God.
3d 4B 20
10
וְגַם־מִקְנֵ֜נוּ יֵלֵ֣ךְ עִמָּ֗נוּ לֹ֤א תִשָּׁאֵר֙ פַּרְסָ֔ה כִּ֚י מִמֶּ֣נּוּ נִקַּ֔ח לַעֲבֹ֖ד אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ
וַאֲנַ֣חְנוּ לֹֽא־נֵדַ֗ע מַֽה־נַּעֲבֹד֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֔ה עַד־בֹּאֵ֖נוּ שָֽׁמָּה
26 And moreover, our acquisitions will go with us. Not a hoof will be residue, for from such we must take to serve Yahweh our God,
and we do not know with what we will serve Yahweh, until we come there.
3e 4C 32
19
וַיְחַזֵּ֥ק יְהוָ֖ה אֶת־לֵ֣ב פַּרְעֹ֑ה
וְלֹ֥א אָבָ֖ה לְשַׁלְּחָֽם
27 But Yahweh made resolute the heart of Pharaoh,
and he did not consent to set them loose.
3e 4B 9
7
וַיֹּֽאמֶר־ל֥וֹ פַרְעֹ֖ה לֵ֣ךְ מֵעָלָ֑י
הִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֗ אֶל־תֹּ֙סֶף֙ רְא֣וֹת פָּנַ֔י כִּ֗י בְּי֛וֹם רְאֹתְךָ֥ פָנַ֖י תָּמֽוּת
28 And Pharaoh said to him, Go from me.
Keep watch for yourself. Not again you will see my face, for in the day you see my face, you die.
3d 4B 10
22
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר מֹשֶׁ֖ה כֵּ֣ן דִּבַּ֑רְתָּ
לֹא־אֹסִ֥ף ע֖וֹד רְא֥וֹת פָּנֶֽיךָ פ
29 And Moses said, So you have spoken.
Not will I again any more see your face.
3e 4B 9
9

Saturday, March 25, 2017

Psalm 27

I am working on an arrangement of Psalm 27. I saw a remarkable sign in the Hebrew I had not noticed before. An ornament around verse 13. Three dots above the letters and three below. I have seen such dots but I had not paid much attention to them. And I had not seen them here.

לׅׄוּלֵׅׄ֗אׅׄ It seems it might be like the ... indicating pondering in Latin characters.

If anyone can tell me what I should do when writing for harp or whatever... feel free to volunteer some composition instruction. You can be fairly certain if you are a composer/arranger that I am not.

I must live with these words even longer. There is no obvious form to this poem. Haïk-Vantoura sets this with a sharpened fourth (A#). It is a most peculiar mode to me though I know she could make it work. The accents are quite different in the Letteris edition and the Leningrad Codex.  Verse 2 begins with a leap up a sixth: בִּקְרֹ֤ב but Letteris must have missed this accent (< under the resh). It is quite clear in the Aleppo codex also. This gives two verses: 2 and 5 with extended recitation on C. The other high C's are quite brief, though verse 1 is a significant starter. In verse 1 C is confidence. In verse 2 it is growing alarm. In verse 5, it is utter delight. In verse 6 a brief word painting (bar 47). The C in verse 8 reflects the shape of the C in verse 1. In verse 11, the C serves only to jump the gap between verse 6 and 7. All this needs to be in the impact of the accompaniment somehow.

Note:  The Letteris edition is significantly defective largely because of spurious metegs in a number of places. They are particularly noticeable in this Psalm. Whenever an apparent silluq draws the voice down to the tonic for one syllable, particularly a weak syllable, that accent is suspect. I have not yet observed any accent below the letters that interferes with the natural stress that begins a new reciting note.

This arrangement that follows will change as I complete it...

Psalms 27 Fn Min Max Syll
לְדָוִ֨ד ׀ יְהוָ֤ה ׀ אוֹרִ֣י וְ֭יִשְׁעִי מִמִּ֣י אִירָ֑א
יְהוָ֥ה מָֽעוֹז־חַ֝יַּ֗י מִמִּ֥י אֶפְחָֽד
1 Of David. Yahweh my light and my salvation, whom will I fear?
Yahweh from strength my life, whom will I dread?
3e 4C 14
10
בִּקְרֹ֤ב עָלַ֨י ׀ מְרֵעִים֮ לֶאֱכֹ֪ל אֶת־בְּשָׂ֫רִ֥י
צָרַ֣י וְאֹיְבַ֣י לִ֑י
הֵ֖מָּה כָשְׁל֣וּ וְנָפָֽלוּ
2 In drawing near to me to injure to eat even my flesh,
my foes and my own enemies,
they, they stumbled and fell.
3d 4C 14
6
8
אִם־תַּחֲנֶ֬ה עָלַ֨י ׀ מַחֲנֶה֮ לֹֽא־יִירָ֪א לִ֫בִּ֥י
אִם־תָּק֣וּם עָ֭לַי מִלְחָמָ֑ה
בְּ֝זֹ֗את אֲנִ֣י בוֹטֵֽחַ
3 If an army over me is armed, my heart will not fear.
If war arises over me,
in this I, even I will trust.

3d 4B 13
8
7
אַחַ֤ת ׀ שָׁאַ֣לְתִּי מֵֽאֵת־יְהוָה֮ אוֹתָ֪הּ אֲבַ֫קֵּ֥שׁ
שִׁבְתִּ֣י בְּבֵית־יְ֭הוָה כָּל־יְמֵ֣י חַיַּ֑י
לַחֲז֥וֹת בְּנֹֽעַם־יְ֝הוָ֗ה וּלְבַקֵּ֥ר בְּהֵיכָלֽוֹ
4 One thing I have asked from Yahweh. That thing I will seek,
that I may sit in the house of Yahweh all the days of my life,
to gaze on the pleasantness of Yahweh and to reflect in his temple.
3d 4C 14
11
15
כִּ֤י יִצְפְּנֵ֨נִי ׀ בְּסֻכֹּה֮ בְּי֪וֹם רָ֫עָ֥ה
יַ֭סְתִּרֵנִי בְּסֵ֣תֶר אָהֳל֑וֹ
בְּ֝צ֗וּר יְרוֹמְמֵֽנִי
5 C For he will treasure me in a booth in a day of evil.
He will hide me in the secret of his tent.
On a rock he will exalt me.
3d 4C 12
10
6
וְעַתָּ֨ה יָר֪וּם רֹאשִׁ֡י עַ֤ל אֹֽיְבַ֬י סְֽבִיבוֹתַ֗י וְאֶזְבְּחָ֣ה בְ֭אָהֳלוֹ זִבְחֵ֣י תְרוּעָ֑ה
אָשִׁ֥ירָה וַ֝אֲזַמְּרָ֗ה לַיהוָֽה
6 And now my head will be exalted above my enemies surrounding me, and I will offer in his tent offerings of jubilation.
I will sing and I will sing a psalm to Yahweh.

3d 4C 27
9
שְׁמַע־יְהוָ֖ה קוֹלִ֥י אֶקְרָ֗א וְחָנֵּ֥נִי וַעֲנֵֽנִי 7 Hear Yahweh my voice. I will call. And be gracious to me and answer me. 3e 3g 16
לְךָ֤ ׀ אָמַ֣ר לִ֭בִּי בַּקְּשׁ֣וּ פָנָ֑י
אֶת־פָּנֶ֖יךָ יְהוָ֣ה אֲבַקֵּֽשׁ
8 He said to you, My heart, seek my face.
Even your face Yahweh I will seek.
3e 4C 10
9
אַל־תַּסְתֵּ֬ר פָּנֶ֨יךָ ׀ מִמֶּנִּי֮ אַֽל־תַּט־בְּאַ֗ף עַ֫בְדֶּ֥ךָ
עֶזְרָתִ֥י הָיִ֑יתָ
אַֽל־תִּטְּשֵׁ֥נִי וְאַל־תַּֽ֝עַזְבֵ֗נִי אֱלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׁעִֽי
9 Do not hide your face from me. Do not push your servant away in anger. You became my help.
Do not abandon me and do not forsake me, O God of my salvation.
3e 4A 16
6
15
כִּי־אָבִ֣י וְאִמִּ֣י עֲזָב֑וּנִי
וַֽיהוָ֣ה יַֽאַסְפֵֽנִי
10 For my father and my mother forsake me,
but Yahweh will gather me.

3e 4B 9
6
ה֤וֹרֵ֥נִי יְהוָ֗ה דַּ֫רְכֶּ֥ךָ
וּ֭נְחֵנִי בְּאֹ֣רַח מִישׁ֑וֹר
לְ֝מַ֗עַן שׁוֹרְרָֽי
11 C Instruct me Yahweh your way,
and guide me in an upright path,
on account of my watchers.
3e 4C 8
8
5
אַֽל־תִּ֭תְּנֵנִי בְּנֶ֣פֶשׁ צָרָ֑י
כִּ֥י קָֽמוּ־בִ֥י עֵֽדֵי־שֶׁ֝֗קֶר וִיפֵ֥חַ חָמָֽס
12 Do not give me to the throat of my foes,
for false witnesses have arisen against me,
and exhaling violence.
3e 4B 9
12
לׅׄוּלֵׅׄ֗אׅׄ הֶ֭אֱמַנְתִּי לִרְא֥וֹת בְּֽטוּב־יְהוָ֗ה בְּאֶ֣רֶץ חַיִּֽים 13 ~ ...What if I had not believed I would see the goodness of Yahweh in the land of the living? 3e 4B 19
קַוֵּ֗ה אֶל־יְה֫וָ֥ה
חֲ֭זַק וְיַאֲמֵ֣ץ לִבֶּ֑ךָ
וְ֝קַוֵּ֗ה אֶל־יְהוָֽה
14 Wait on Yahweh.
Be courageous and he will assure your heart,
so wait on Yahweh.
3e 4B 5
9
6

Thursday, March 23, 2017

Reading project status

My guessing algorithm could be so much better if I applied a few grammatical rules to prevent silly single word guesses, and it will improve when my calculated stem is corrected in the estimated 10% of stems still to be corrected. But here are the results of applying the algorithm with guesses compared to completed chapters.


The books not included above are all 100% complete, except that they are subject to revision and I have done only a cursory check of semantic domains. This month over 125 chapters have been tweaked to some degree. 

The above graph shows which books are less like the language I have done so far. E.g. Isaiah: more single word guesses (blue line higher) than multiple word guesses (green line) means that this book has differing word usage from the sections I have done so far in all books. If the green line is higher than the blue line then there is more shared language. The lines are populated using the completed words, first from the same chapter, then the same book, then from other books.

Deuteronomy, 2 Kings, and Jeremiah stand out as leading the pack. I suspect that they share much phrasing and so have appeared high on my nearly done lists. You can also see that the total of guesses and completed words is over 80% across the board except for Daniel through 1 Chronicles. The average of all guesses and complete is 87%, but this is word by word, not verse by verse. Verse by verse requires the bulk of the thinking time. Forming sensible sentences, conversation or poetry or description is the fun part. Minimizing assumptions and imagining the social relationships is the challenge.

You can see from the table below that words are way ahead of verses. And verses lag chapters. So the 50% mark is somewhat subjective. The 450 chapters remaining are longer than three Psalters because they have a lot more verses (12,832) than three books of Psalms would have (2527 * 3). The verses are also longer than Psalm verses.

The estimated weeks of effort remaining is based on 10 verses per hour, 2 hours per day, 6 days per week, 45 weeks per year. Last night late at night after watching the news (a real waste of time) I did Exodus 19 from 60% to 100%. The time was 2 hours for 22 verses and probably I had 3 or 4 already done - so more or less on target for 10 per hour. Some verses are easier than others. Some are instantaneous, requiring less than a minute. Some puzzle for hours. Some words require a lot of research. And obviously I could consult more of the literature than I do, and I likely will some day...
Books Chapters Verses Chapters 'Done' Verses compl ch Words compl ch weeks rem. by vs % 'done' by ch
1 Torah 187 5843 60 1775 24771 33.9 25% 32.1%
2 Former Prophets 147 4297 37 1081 17085 26.8 19% 25.2%
3 Later Prophets 166 3928 57 1157 18278 23.1 17% 34.3%
4 The 12 67 1050 67 1050 14357 0.0 5% 100.0%
5 Books of Truth 223 4502 201 3857 29777 5.4 19% 90.1%
6 The 5 Scrolls 39 745 39 745 10118 0.0 3% 100.0%
7 Other 100 2791 18 423 6344 19.7 12% 18.0%
929 23156 479 108.9 100%
Status as of  2017-03-23 Chapters Verses Words
Completed 479 10,088 120,730
51.6% 43.6% 39.6%
To do, including in process 450 12,832 145,308
55.4% 47.7%
In process 1.0% 12.7%

This post raises a question I have been thinking about for some time. What phrases are shared by differing books of the Bible and to what extent? So I messed around a bit and made a list of common Hebrew phrases exactly 6 Hebrew words long and shared by multiple chapters or books more than 5 times.

The Numbers results are almost all chapter 7 where there are individual 11 word verses, 1 for each tribe. The algorithm results in some duplicates. Apart from the obvious that a graph of this would require some imaginative work.


כּתּובּיםּ על ספּר דּבּרי הימּיםּ למּלכּי331 Kings, 2 Kings, Esther
כּה אמּר יהוה צבּאותּ אלהי ישׂראל31Jeremiah
הםּ כּתּובּיםּ על ספּר דּבּרי הימּיםּ261 Kings, 2 Kings, Esther
על ספּר דּבּרי הימּיםּ למּלכּי ישׂראל181 Kings, 2 Kings
הלא הםּ כּתּובּיםּ על ספּר דּבּרי161 Kings, 2 Kings
על ספּר דּבּרי הימּיםּ למּלכּי יהודּה151 Kings, 2 Kings
אחדּ בּןּ בּקר איל אחדּ כּבּשׂ12Numbers
אחדּ כּבּשׂ אחדּ בּןּ שׁנּתּו לעלה12Numbers
אחדּ כּסףּ שׁבּעיםּ שׁקל בּשׁקל הקדּשׁ12Numbers
אחתּ שׁלשׁיםּ ומּאה מּשׁקלה מּזרק אחדּ12Numbers
איל אחדּ כּבּשׂ אחדּ בּןּ שׁנּתּו12Numbers
בּןּ בּקר איל אחדּ כּבּשׂ אחדּ12Numbers
בּקר איל אחדּ כּבּשׂ אחדּ בּןּ12Numbers
בּשׁקל הקדּשׁ שׁנּיהםּ מּלאיםּ סלתּ בּלולה12Numbers
דּבּר אל בּנּי ישׂראל ואמּרתּ אלהםּ12Leviticus, Numbers
הקדּשׁ שׁנּיהםּ מּלאיםּ סלתּ בּלולה בּשׁמּןּ12Numbers
ולזבּח השׁלמּיםּ בּקר שׁנּיםּ אילםּ חמּשׁה12Numbers
ומּאה מּשׁקלה מּזרק אחדּ כּסףּ שׁבּעיםּ12Numbers
חמּשׁה כּבּשׂיםּ בּנּי שׁנּה חמּשׁה זה12Numbers
כּבּשׂיםּ בּנּי שׁנּה חמּשׁה זה קרבּןּ12Numbers
כּסףּ אחתּ שׁלשׁיםּ ומּאה מּשׁקלה מּזרק12Numbers
כּסףּ שׁבּעיםּ שׁקל בּשׁקל הקדּשׁ שׁנּיהםּ12Numbers
כּףּ אחתּ עשׂרה זהבּ מּלאה קטרתּ12Numbers
מּזרק אחדּ כּסףּ שׁבּעיםּ שׁקל בּשׁקל12Numbers
מּשׁקלה מּזרק אחדּ כּסףּ שׁבּעיםּ שׁקל12Numbers
פּר אחדּ בּןּ בּקר איל אחדּ12Numbers
קערתּ כּסףּ אחתּ שׁלשׁיםּ ומּאה מּשׁקלה12Numbers
שׁבּעיםּ שׁקל בּשׁקל הקדּשׁ שׁנּיהםּ מּלאיםּ 12Numbers
שׁלשׁיםּ ומּאה מּשׁקלה מּזרק אחדּ כּסףּ12Numbers
שׁנּיהםּ מּלאיםּ סלתּ בּלולה בּשׁמּןּ למּנּחה12Numbers
שׁקל בּשׁקל הקדּשׁ שׁנּיהםּ מּלאיםּ סלתּ12Numbers
בּןּ נּבּט אשׁר החטיא אתּ ישׂראל111 Kings, 2 Kings
וידּבּר יהוה אל מּשׁה ואל אהרןּ11Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers
יהוה אל מּשׁה ואל אהרןּ לאמּר11Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers
ירבּעםּ בּןּ נּבּט אשׁר החטיא אתּ111 Kings, 2 Kings
קרבּנּו קערתּ כּסףּ אחתּ שׁלשׁיםּ ומּאה11Numbers
אילםּ חמּשׁה עתּדּיםּ חמּשׁה כּבּשׂיםּ בּנּי10Numbers
אשׁר היה אל ירמּיהו מּאתּ יהוה10Jeremiah
בּקר שׁנּיםּ אילםּ חמּשׁה עתּדּיםּ חמּשׁה10Numbers
הדּבּר אשׁר היה אל ירמּיהו מּאתּ10Jeremiah
הלוא הםּ כּתּובּיםּ על ספּר דּבּרי101 Kings, 2 Kings, Esther
השׁלמּיםּ בּקר שׁנּיםּ אילםּ חמּשׁה עתּדּיםּ10Numbers
חי אנּי נּאםּ אדּנּי יהוה אםּ10Ezekiel
חמּשׁה עתּדּיםּ חמּשׁה כּבּשׂיםּ בּנּי שׁנּה10Numbers
עתּדּיםּ חמּשׁה כּבּשׂיםּ בּנּי שׁנּה חמּשׁה10Numbers
שׁנּיםּ אילםּ חמּשׁה עתּדּיםּ חמּשׁה כּבּשׂיםּ 10Numbers
אמּר יהוה צבּאותּ אלהי ישׂראל הנּנּי9Jeremiah
ליהוה כּי טובּ כּי לעולםּ חסדּו91 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Psalms
אשׁר יהוה אלהיךּ נּתּןּ לךּ נּחלה8Deuteronomy
אשׁר עשׂה הלא הםּ כּתּובּיםּ על81 Kings, 2 Kings
ואמּרתּ אליהםּ כּה אמּר אדּנּי יהוה8Ezekiel
כּה אמּר יהוה על שׁלשׁה פּשׁעי8Amos
לכּןּ כּה אמּר אדּנּי יהוה הנּנּי8Ezekiel, Isaiah
עשׂה הלא הםּ כּתּובּיםּ על ספּר81 Kings, 2 Kings
אילםּ שׁנּיםּ כּבּשׂיםּ בּנּי שׁנּה ארבּעה7Numbers
הארץ אשׁר יהוה אלהיךּ נּתּןּ לךּ7Deuteronomy
כּי כּה אמּר יהוה צבּאותּ אלהי7Jeremiah
כּכּל אשׁר צוה יהוה אתּ מּשׁה7Exodus, Numbers
לחדּשׁ היה דּבּר יהוה אלי לאמּר7Ezekiel
לכּןּ הנּה ימּיםּ בּאיםּ נּאםּ יהוה7Jeremiah
לכּןּ כּה אמּר אדּנּי יהוה יעןּ7Ezekiel
עםּ אבּתּיו ויקבּר עםּ אבּתּיו בּעיר71 Kings, 2 Chronicles, 2 Kings
שׁנּיםּ כּבּשׂיםּ בּנּי שׁנּה ארבּעה עשׂר7Numbers
אבּתּיו ויקבּר עםּ אבּתּיו בּעיר דּודּ61 Kings, 2 Kings
אתּ בּיתּ יהוה ואתּ בּיתּ המּלךּ61 Kings, 2 Chronicles, 2 Kings, Jeremiah
הישׁר בּעינּי יהוה כּכּל אשׁר עשׂה62 Chronicles, 2 Kings
ויעשׂ הישׁר בּעינּי יהוה כּכּל אשׁר62 Chronicles, 2 Kings
צוה יהוה אתּ מּשׁה כּןּ עשׂו6Exodus, Joshua, Numbers